Interview: The Iranian Revolution

Flag of the Peoples Mujahedin of Iran

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! no. 11 – July/August 1981

We print below an interview given to FRFI by the Moslem Students Society (Supporters of the People's Mojahedin Organisation of Iran — PMOI). The PMOI is the foremost revolutionary anti-imperialist organisation in Iran and together with other revolutionary forces is the vanguard of the Iranian revolution.

Q First, can you briefly explain the significance of the removal of Bani-Sadr as President of Iran by the Islamic Republican Party (IRP) controlled Parliament?

A Bani-Sadr's elimination was part of the reactionaries' aim to establish a state of total repression in Iran in order to pave the way for a complete compromise with imperialism. The ruling regime had to rid itself of its internal opposition represented by Bani-Sadr as the first step in its aim to crush all revolutionary forces in Iran, particularly the PMOI and to destroy the revolutionary activities of the people.

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Iran: anti-austerity protests

Iranian protest 2018

As 2017 drew to a close, thousands of people came out onto the streets of Iran, protesting against austerity measures and unemployment. The protests were on a scale not seen since the ‘Green Movement’ which followed the 2009 elections (see FRFI 210). They reflected many different interests, from working class people angry about cuts imposed by President Rouhani’s budget measures, through those demanding a stricter form of Islamic rule, to those seeking to overthrow the Iranian government in favour of full integration into the imperialist global economy. Internationally, the protests were seized upon by imperialist leaders and ruling class media, to further their objective of regime change in Iran. President Trump tweeted on 30 December: ‘The entire world understands that the good people of Iran want change, and, other than the vast military power of the United States, that Iran’s people are what their leaders fear the most’.

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Iran ‘The prize’

With the 14 July 2015 agreement between Iran and the P5 + 1 group (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany) on Iran’s nuclear energy programme, enormous investment opportunities for multinational corporations open up in Iran and significant strategic changes in the Middle East may be in the offing. The deal should lead to the removal of US and European Union sanctions on Iran in early 2016 and give Iran access to over $100bn frozen in overseas banks. Sanctions have cost Iran $160bn in oil sales in three years. The US has imposed sanctions on Iran since 1979; these may be removed. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu was furious at the deal, calling it a ‘stunning, historical mistake’ that will make the world a ‘more dangerous place’. Saudi Arabia threatened to develop its own nuclear industry. Saudi Arabia and Israel fear an economically strong Iran which the removal of sanctions could bring. They also fear that their strategic significance to imperialism will be downgraded and that the advantages that have come with it will be reduced.

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Iran: A change in tactics / FRFI 236 Dec 2013/Jan 2014

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 236 December 2013/January 2014

The interim agreement on Iran’s nuclear industry announced on 24 November 2013 indicates a change in US tactics towards Iran and the Middle East. If the Iranian government believes that by making concessions to the P5 plus one (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany), imperialism will accept an independent Iran, this would be a mistake. The US, Britain and France will continue to try to force Iran into becoming a client state that accepts US hegemony in the Middle East.

When the US threatened to bomb Syria in August this was also a threat to attack Iran. With its decision not to overtly attack Syria and to accept the Russian plan to decommission Syria’s chemical weapons and production facilities, the US showed that it does not intend to fight another war in the Middle East – not at the moment anyway. US failures in Iraq and Afghanistan, the costs of the wars, public disapproval of another war and divisions in the US and European ruling classes have produced a change in US tactics.

Secret meetings between senior US and Iranian officials began in March 2013 – formal diplomatic relations between the two countries had ended with the 1979 revolution. The outlines of a deal on Iran’s nuclear energy were presented in early November, but France objected to the exclusion from the proposed agreement of Iran’s planned construction of a heavy water reactor at Arak. A heavy water reactor was used by North Korea to manufacture its nuclear bomb. The interim agreement is for six months. Iran has agreed to suspend construction of the Arak plant, to keep uranium enrichment to 5% or below, to neutralise or dilute uranium enriched up to 20% (enrichment up to 90% is required for a nuclear weapon), to freeze enrichment capacity and to accept intrusive inspection. In return Iran will get access to $3.5bn of its assets frozen in international bank accounts and be able to trade in petrochemicals, gold, other precious metals and aircraft parts. The agreement is reckoned to be worth $7bn to Iran. Iranian officials said that the agreement recognised Iran’s right to enrich uranium, but US Secretary of State John Kerry insists that it does not.

The imperialists believe sanctions have worked by forcing Iran to make concessions and that they can be used to extract more from the Iranian state. European Union and US sanctions on Iranian oil and gas exports remain. Iran seeks tens of billions of its dollars frozen in foreign banks and to increase energy exports.

Sanctions have begun to harm the Iranian economy. Before sanctions were imposed, Iran exported 2.5m barrels of oil per day, exports are now 800,000 barrels per day. Iran’s GDP has shrunk by 5.4%, the Iranian rial has halved in exchange rate against the US dollar, inflation is officially over 40% but could be twice this rate. 40% of Iranians live below the poverty line and youth unemployment, in a country where a third of its 75 million people are under 30, is officially 28.3%. Malnutrition is growing, there are shortages of medicines and factories have closed. The budget deficit has risen to $28bn with declining revenues, and public sector wages could go unpaid.

Given this economic and social crisis, sections of the Iranian ruling class are seeking to compromise with imperialism; others will seek an alliance with it. Iran has the world’s fourth largest oil reserves and largest gas reserves. The government will use access to its oil and gas to bargain the sanctions away. Before the interim agreement, an advisor to the oil minister said that US and European firms would be invited to invest in Iran. He explained Iran is seeking $100bn investment in three years, with details to be revealed in London in March 2014. After the agreement the oil minister said he had met with representatives of European oil companies and ‘indirectly’ with US companies with a view to inviting them back to Iran. Among the European companies approached will be Shell, Total, Eni and Statoil. Any US or European investment in Iran would require sanctions to be removed.

US investment in Iran would ensure that Iranian oil was priced in dollars and European investment would reduce its dependence on imports from Russia (see FRFI 235, October/November 2013). Iran needs advanced technology to increase its potential exports and reserves.

The Israeli and Saudi Arabian governments, dismayed that the US did not bomb Syria, are furious with the agreement and view it as a challenge to their strategic position for imperialism in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia presents itself as the guardian of Sunni interests against Shia-led Iran. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu described the agreement as a ‘historic mistake’. However, for Israel, Saudi Arabia and the other Sunni-led Gulf Cooperation Countries there is no other effective guarantor of their security and status than US military might.

Israel will not attack Iran without US backing. However, there will be more covert attacks on Iran, such as the bombing of the Iranian embassy in Beirut on 19 November, which killed over 20 people, and more encouragement of sectarian strife between Sunni and Shia Muslims.

Trevor Rayne


Iran under pressure

During October 2012 the US and Israel held a three week joint missile and air defence exercise with 4,500 soldiers, making it the largest joint military exercise between the two nations. On 2 November The Independent reported the British government to be considering stationing warplanes adjacent to the Persian Gulf to prevent Iran from blocking the Strait of Hormuz, through which passes 35% of the world’s seaborne oil. British Defence Secretary Philip Hammond said that European countries must be ‘prepared, if necessary, to take a bigger role in relation to North Africa and the Middle East...Europe, as a whole, needs to do more.’ The Royal Navy maintains ten ships, including a nuclear submarine, in the Persian Gulf region. Hammond was issuing a threat to the peoples of the Middle East, North Africa and Iran, in particular, not to challenge imperialist domination of the region.

In October the European Union imposed new sanctions on Iran, including a ban on Iranian gas exports, a freeze on transactions with Iranian banks and prohibitions on a range of exports to Iran. Britain, France and Germany are leading the EU sanctions campaign and claim they are demanding that Iran negotiate its nuclear energy programme. The EU and US sanctions are hurting Iranian people: oil exports have halved since July 2012 and are a third of what they were a year ago. This has driven the Iranian rial currency down against the US dollar, it dropped 30% in a week, which in turn has fuelled inflation. There is also a shortage of medicines, including for treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases; some six million people are believed to be affected.

In early October there were street protests against the Iranian government and the Tehran bazaar went on strike. Police have shut down currency shops and confiscated hard currency and gold coins to try and prevent speculation against the rial, but an illegal market in dollars is growing. Tensions are surfacing among Iran’s ruling circles: on 4 November 77 parliamentarians signed a petition summoning President Ahmadinejad to answer questions on the economy.

The US and European ruling classes would prefer to remove the Iranian regime by sanctions rather than all out war, which is unpredictable and potentially devastating for the region and the world economy. However, recent developments demonstrate that the covert war already underway could escalate quickly into a regional conflagration. At the end of October two Iranian warships docked at Port Sudan on Sudan’s Red Sea coast. This was one week after the Sudanese government accused Israel of sending eight warplanes to bomb an arms factory in the capital Khartoum. Iranian made Fajr-5 rockets are being fired from Gaza at Israel. Iran then announced that it had developed a drone that can take off vertically without a runway.

On 16 November 2012 the International Atomic Energy Agency reported that Iran was now equipped to increase production of enriched uranium. The purpose of such reports and their presentation in the bourgeois media is to suggest that Iran already has a nuclear weapons programme, which it does not have. Surveys show the majority of US people do believe that Iran has a nuclear weapons programme. Former Labour foreign secretary David Miliband co-authored an article in the Financial Times entitled ‘Iran can be disarmed if we learn the lessons of the cold war’ (13 April 2012). Such propaganda is intended to prepare the public for war. We must get Britain out of the Middle East and North Africa.

Trevor Rayne