Education notes: Gove shrinks state education /FRFI 229 Oct/Nov 2012

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 229 October/November 2012

Behind the summer’s headlines of ConDem ‘omnishambles’, in reality the Coalition government has been ruthlessly pursuing its real agenda – to shrink state education. Controversies over exam results, sports funding, junk food in academies, and dead-end free schools are media buzzes that Education Secretary Michael Gove will tolerate in pursuit of his goal – to break up, downsize and privatise as much of the state education system as possible. The chaos and misery that Gove leaves in his wake is of no concern to a government that embodies the rampant need of the capitalist class to find new sources of profitable investment.

Junk food makes money

There were once 20,000 school breakfast clubs and records show that children’s attendance, concentration and motivation noticeably improved with the provision of healthy food before school. At least one in eight breakfast clubs have been cut in the last 12 months, despite increasing numbers of children arriving at school hungry. A recent two-year pilot scheme which extended free school meals to all primary pupils in Newham, east London, and Durham showed that providing free lunches is a more cost-effective way of boosting test results than some high-profile literacy and numeracy schemes.

After the Labour government ended Local Education Authority (LEA) school meal services, parents campaigned against the disgustingly low quality of meals provided by the food industry. The campaign against junk food took off with the celebrity stamp of Jamie Oliver resulting in legislation in 2005 on junk food, including bans on the sale of fizzy drinks and chocolate snacks in state schools, and discouraging kids from buying at local fast food outlets. However, academies and ‘free’ schools are exempt because their freedom from state ‘interference’ includes the right to make money from contracts with snack and drinks companies to install dispensing machines on school premises. The fast food franchise company Domino’s Pizza is largely owned by Moonpal Singh Grewal. He is also a generous benefactor to Gove’s Surrey Heath constituency party, which he chairs, making donations of nearly £50,000 between November 2005 and December 2011. Surrey Conservatives also accepted £6,805 from Surinder Kandola, the owner of 22 Domino’s Pizza franchises, in June 2006. There is no ‘conflict of interests’ here. Michael Gove simply supports his friends in big business and not the welfare of pupils.

Because you’re not worth it

In 1974, Reg Prentice, Education Secretary in the then Labour government, told teachers that in times of economic crisis there must be wage restraint and cutbacks in education spending, and that ‘yes, everybody must pay, even the children’. Today Gove’s task is how to best impose cuts with minimum social disruption. Over the last 38 years the further and higher education system has expanded dramatically with about 50% of young people attending university and many jobs now require degree level qualifications. For decades young people have been told that the way to improve ‘life chances’ is by succeeding in a regime of testing and targets from the age of five onwards, aimed at producing a highly skilled competitive workforce prepared for the ‘global challenge of the world market’ (Labour Prime Minister Gordon Brown). This is the climate in which Gove has to reverse expectations and implement cuts. The sudden change in grade boundaries for English GCSE grade C this summer was one of the steps used to deflate the hopes of students. The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation pressurised the exam board Edexcel to change its threshold for awarding a C grade from 55 marks in January to 65 marks in June. A C-grade in English and maths is the minimum gateway to further education. Without it students cannot advance to education beyond the age of 16 years.

Gove had peddled the myth of ‘grade inflation’ to cover the crackdown on financing further education but he has made enemies including those professionals and institutions that rely on new cohorts joining ‘A’ level and other courses. Gove can manage this disapproval. He has announced that from 2015 GCSEs will be replaced by a more stringent and academic exam, similar to ‘O’ levels, which will exclude layers of young people from entering any public examinations at all. That will combine a massive cutback in educational expenditure and end the hopes of generations for a better-paid future at a stroke.

Sports for some

Under the School Sports Partnership (SSP), £162m a year was given to 450 companies to work with schools to develop physical education. Gove is ending this funding, dismissing it as being misspent on activities ‘like Indian dancing’ and not on competitive team sports. Andy Burnham, Labour Shadow Education Secretary agreed with a 30% cut in SSP ‘at this time of national crisis’, but argued that it would ‘damage the British Olympic legacy’. Gove has dismissed criticism with the words, ‘my cabinet colleague [then Culture Secretary] Jeremy Hunt has got a marvellous proposal for a school Olympics, meaning that in every community every year we will have competitive sport’.

‘Free’ schools in freefall

Fifty-five new ‘free’ schools are opening across England this year to add to last year’s 24. A further 114 have been approved for 2013. They are not ‘free’ but paid for by the state directly from central government. Guaranteed state funding, the opportunity to occupy public buildings, design a personalised curriculum, hire bright young people who do not have to be qualified teachers, and generate a client base has been promoted as a dizzying entrepreneurial opportunity. Time has shown, however, that there are limits to how far Gove & Co can dole out money to chosen beneficiaries, and how little most parents trust these new set-ups with their go-it-alone fantasies and cheap imitations of Eton. The One in a Million Free School in Bradford had its funding withdrawn on the grounds it had too few pupils, just eight days before it was due to open having cost some £213,000. The Beccles Free School in Suffolk which has received £2m in funding and has space for 162 pupils is opening with fewer than 70 in an area that has 10,000 spare secondary school places.

Susan Davidson

No armed forces in our schools / FRFI 228 Aug/Sep 2012

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism 228 August/September 2012

In recent months secondary schools across Glasgow have been the focus of British Army recruitment drives. As always it is the schools situated in the most predominantly working class areas that are given the most intense scrutiny. With unemployment figures on the rise, a career in the British Army is once again being touted as the way to escape the decimation of living standards. As an Army representative put it: ‘Employment with the Army represents a chance to see the world, to meet new people and defend the lifestyle you love ... it is a wonder that you are not paying us’.

Despite the deceit in this statement it is one which is becoming increasingly appealing for young people. What do anti-imperialists say to this? Don’t join the army, be unemployed and join the anti-war movement? Oh, wait! There is no effective anti-war movement in Glasgow or anywhere else in Britain; the fact that Army personnel can walk freely into schools across the country and spout imperialist propaganda to young people is testimony to the failure of the left to build an active anti-war movement. The struggle is therefore to educate young, working class people as to why they should not sign up. To argue that an attack on working class people in any country that Britain invades be it Ireland, Iraq, Afghanistan or Libya is an attack on working class people in Britain. That an injury to one is an injury to all.

Thankfully in Glasgow, the British Army’s war on young people is facing small-scale but vital resistance. At an Employment Opportunities festival for Glasgow’s high schools attended by 14 to 16-year-olds, it was little surprise to see that the biggest marquees in the hall were allocated to British Army recruitment teams. The recruiters were even allowed to place their stalls in separate areas to cover each corner of the hall, a pitch each for the British Army, The Royal Navy, The Royal Air Force and even a stall for the Corps of Army Musicians! Nevertheless, this fiasco did not go unopposed. A trio of courageous teenagers decided to place themselves in front of the recruitment officers and speak to their classmates about what was actually happening. To the horror of the recruitment thugs and delight of the protesters the recruiters were soon left isolated, with unsigned forms and untouched leaflets.

Afterwards, an FRFI supporter caught up with two of the successful demonstrators. 14-year-old Ross said: ‘In school we have been learning about the rise of Hitler in Germany and how he targeted the youth to make sure that the next generation would have Nazi politics, I came here today to try and find an opportunity to work and instead am given leaflets about joining an organisation which is responsible for killing millions of innocent people, it may be on a different scale but the ideas are the same and it’s just not on, I wasn’t prepared to stand by and let them brainwash my friends into fighting innocent people for a bunch of millionaires.’

15-year-old Connor explained:

‘I had expected an Army presence and had grown tired of seeing people who I socialise with being enthusiastic about what they were offering. We didn’t disrupt the Army’s stall but merely uncovered it, so to speak – after a classmate had been at the stall or spoken to by one of them we spoke to them, asked them simple questions and they actually talked themselves out of it. That’s the thing, really, it’s not that young people are ignorant to what the Army is but more that there is a rainbow put over the atrocities which have been committed by the Army. I mean, why is it that in subjects like history we are taught almost solely about Britain’s involvement in World War Two and not their campaigns across Africa, the Middle East or in Ireland? It is easy to paint the Brits as heroes when their blood-drenched past is wiped from the course of history which is effectively what happens in school. Already people have been asking me and the others about what we were doing and why, and the majority agreed with it. The task is to be proactive about this and try and make sure that when the next time an event like this happens the Army cannot even enter the venue to spread their deceit. This requires real education in schools which will be left down to the students. Glasgow City Council will also be receiving a letter voicing our discontent, with the disrespect that they have shown towards young people in the past though I won’t hold my breath on a reply!’

FRFI applauds the work of these students and condemns the cowardly recruitment drives of the British Army.

Matt Kelly

Academy schools: bribes and false promises / FRFI 227 June/July 2012

The rush for schools to convert into academies has reached fever pitch. The government anticipated that there would be about 400 schools, both secondary and primary, by now, but in two years 1,421 new academies, added to those set up under Labour, make a total of 1,807 – and rising. Academies are state-funded ‘independent’ schools that are taken out of local education authorities (LEAs); they may receive funds from charities, wealthy individuals, religious foundations or corporate sponsors. Michael Gove, the education secretary, plans to turn the majority of state schools into academies under this ConDem government. Although the main weapon for ‘turning’ schools is extra funding, cash bribery, Gove has also used emergency legislation (introduced by the Labour government for the purposes of anti-terrorism) to impose academy status on schools that refuse to change, like Downhills Primary School in Haringey (see FRFI 225).

The 1997-2010 Labour government had a vanity project to close some weak schools and to open 248 prestigious new premises as academies. The most famous of these is Mossbourne Academy in Hackney which opened in 2006. Mossbourne’s titled head teacher, Sir Michael Wilshaw, now head of the Ofsted inspection team, was dubbed ‘bullyboy’ at the head teachers’ conference in May this year.

What’s in it for the government?

The transfer of state schools to academy status removes the (limited) democratic accountability of local education authorities to parents and the community, and replaces it with direct rule from the Department for Education (DfE). Nationally agreed standards of class size, health and safety matters such as toilet facilities, playground space and the length of the school day are abolished. Academies can have their own pay and conditions for staff, set aside parts of the curriculum and change the length of the school day. They can also open their doors to advertisers, special interest groups, and untrained staff; plus they can expel pupils, which they do at three times the rate of LEA schools, without recourse to appeal. What the government gains from this power without responsibility is that the academy structure supports and hosts private companies in the school system.

What’s in it for the pupils and parents?

Pupils and parents may benefit from academies if they are winners in the system. Mossbourne School has 1,500 applicants for 180 places every year. The building is superb, the resources generous and the teaching ‘traditional’, ie strict. Exam results put it in the top tranche of comprehensive schools in England despite having 40% of pupils on free school meals (national average 17%) and 30% on the Special Needs register. The mostly young teachers at Mossbourne work a 15-hour day and operate a strong reward and punishment ethos that has, so far, obtained excellent GCSE results for previously ‘underachieving’ pupils. To what extent these results are due to academy status and how much to the particular history of this school is the subject of much discussion by educationalists. Some commentators conclude that state comprehensives have produced academic attainment as well as Mossbourne but with less money. Other academies have shown little or no improvement in exam results despite the extra money.

There are no benefits for the majority of pupils remaining in LEA schools but rather a loss of funding and resources as money is diverted into converted schools. New academies received special grants to the tune of £120 million in the last academic year. This is money lost to local education budgets at a time when the government is cutting 13% from education spending in what the Institute for Fiscal Studies describes as the largest cut in education since the 1950s. Odd pots of money like Clegg’s ‘pupil premium’ for children on free school meals are just publicity stunts, as schools use this much-needed cash to pay for core school provision.

What’s in it for private companies?

For multinationals and corporations the academy programme is a golden opportunity to make money (see FRFI 226 on Murdoch’s bid for British classrooms). School provision has been deregulated as well as increasingly privatised over the last 20 years. Headteachers and governors can make deals that make money. So 90% of academy schools now have contracts with food companies and sell junk food from vending machines and tuck shops, making profits of between £3,000 and £15,000 a year for themselves and much more for private firms. Only LEA schools continue to ban the sale of sweet snacks and fizzy drinks in response to campaigns by Jamie Oliver and the Schools Food Trust.

It’s not all good news for schools and their ‘business plans’, however. Nearly half of all schools, including LEA schools, are trapped in ‘toxic contracts’ with office suppliers and computer firms; some have ended up having to pay out £320,000 for seven photocopiers, and £500,000 for 100 laptops.

The anti-academy movement

The disappearance of LEA schools and their replacement by academies is deeply offensive to many parents and pupils around the country. There are strong objections to attending a school that ‘belongs’ to a particular sponsor. In large areas of Liverpool, for example, all local schools are ‘faith’ schools and there is no neighbourhood non-religious secondary school. In response to the growing protest movement, Gove now sells his campaign for academy status as ‘a journey to improvement’. He spins the academies programme as a plan for social mobility and describes as ‘morally indefensible’ the dominance of the public schoolboy in every prominent position of power in British society including business, politics, the media, the military and the legal system.

Gove’s little populist spurt is just a politician’s trick to pat the voter on the head and commit robbery at the same time – like Deputy Prime Minister Clegg’s announcement of a £10,000 prize ‘for the most improved school’. Clegg says he wants to ‘strike a deal between the coalition government and our schools and teachers’. There can be no such deal. Bribery and promises solve none of the problems of decent school provision. The government will pay a heavy price for selling off the state education system.

Susan Davidson

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 227 June/July 2012

Plunder of the public purse /FRFI 226 April/May 2012

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism 226 April/May 2012

Education Notes

In the UK today the privatisation of the state education system leads directly to the distribution of spoils to individuals and groups favoured by the government. The Academies and ‘free’ schools programmes are designed to siphon off public money and Education Secretary Michael Gove has championed a system of patronage. One of his former advisers, Rachel Wolf, has become the latest in a long run of individuals to personally benefit from the privatisation of the education system. Wolf runs the New Schools Network, a so-called charity to promote ‘free’ schools; in reality devoted to the break-up the state system. The New Schools Network received a £500,000 grant from the Department for Education (DfE) for its work. No other organisation was asked to bid for the work and the role was not publicly advertised.

The bigger picture

Rewarding loyalists with these highly-paid posts is not the final aim of this government. The serious agenda is to be found in Gove’s relationship with Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation. Michael Gove defended Murdoch in October 2011 after the closure of the News of the World at the height of the phone hacking scandal. No surprise there, for as described in FRFI 224, both Gove and his wife Sarah Vince have had extravagantly well-paid jobs at The Times and the publisher Harper Collins, subsidiary of News Corporation.

The ties between Murdoch and Gove are far closer than this financial patronage suggests. Rupert Murdoch has declared a determination to move into the education market in the United States. In the summer of 2010 he hired New York lawyer Joel Klein, chancellor of New York City Education Department, at a cost of $2m a year plus a $1 million signing bonus, to launch a ‘revolutionary, and profitable, education division’ for News Corp. Murdoch's vision consisted of an open marketplace to digitise the world’s so far unexploited classrooms. He told investors: ‘We see a $500bn sector in the US alone that is waiting desperately to be transformed by big breakthroughs.’ He envisaged some of News Corporation’s large library of media content being beamed to pupils’ terminals.

Murdoch then moved on to the possibilities of breaking into a lucrative market in the UK. He told the audience for his 2010 Margaret Thatcher lecture that the UK’s education system needed reform because ‘in the last decades ... most of the English-speaking world has spent more and more on education with worse and worse results’. It is on record that Gove has met Klein and Murdoch on many occasions since he became Education Secretary in May 2010. Gove accompanied former News International chief executive Rebekah Brooks on a November 2010 trip to a site in east London, near News Inter-national’s Wapping HQ, where Murdoch planned to build an Academy school, no doubt as an opener for his project to buy into the UK education market. According to Guardian journalist David Leigh, Murdoch described himself in a speech as the saviour of British education, thanks to his company's ‘adoption of new academies here in London’. Leigh has catalogued Gove’s close relations with Murdoch (see The Guardian 27 February 2012).

Muddy waters

Murdoch’s education business operations in Britain have been partially stalled by the revelations of widespread phone hacking and corruption at News International leading to the arrests of journalists including Rebekah Brooks. The Wapping Academy plans have sunk without trace. Curiously Joel Klein, who was recruited by Rupert Murdoch in January 2011 as executive vice president at News Corp and chief executive of News Corp’s new education unit, is now overseeing the clean-up operation at News International. Gove is a big fan of Klein’s management style which included major clashes with teachers’ unions in New York and enthusiasm for Academy-style schools. Shortly before his recruitment to News Corp, Klein’s department awarded a $27 million contract to Wireless Generation, the Murdoch-owned student data tracking company. The award of the contract is questionable in relation to Klein’s career move, but so also is the wisdom of awarding a contract concerned with personal information to a company now notorious for illegally hacking personal information. On 6 July 2011 Murdoch stated that Klein would ‘provide important oversight and guidance’ in the phone hacking investigation.

Michael Gove and Mrs Blurt

The ‘independent’ News International investigation could not stop the stink of corruption from emerging. The muddy waters which are closing over the head of Murdoch have at least temporarily halted his plans to privatise sections of the UK education system. Nor has Michael Gove been spared. A recent Freedom of Information request has revealed that certain of Michael Gove’s special advisors at the DfE have an undisclosed private e-mail account called ‘Mrs Blurt’ used to discuss government business. Gove is refusing to release these e-mails on the grounds that they are private. A further number, perhaps 130, departmental e-mails between Gove’s aides and a number of journalists have been systematically deleted and the Information Commissioner’s Office is investigating ‘allegations of a criminal nature’ at the DfE.

Klein is today leading the News International ‘management and standards committee’ where he is handing over journalists’ incriminating e-mails to the police. We demand similar and better exposure of the links between Michael Gove, Rupert Murdoch, journalists, the police and the public money that is being diverted from the public purse to fund the plot against state education in the UK.

The ‘direct power’ of Whitehall

The DfE has stormed into the London Borough of Haringey to prepare the way for handing over at least four local authority schools to Academy sponsors. The use of ‘direct power’ was introduced by the Labour government to remove a governing body and replace it with an Interim Executive Board (IEB) appointed from Whitehall. The governors of Downhills Primary School were sacked in March because they were actively campaigning, together with the community, teachers, parents and pupils, against an enforced transfer to Academy status. The new five-member IEB includes Daniel Moynihan, who is also Chief Executive of the Harris Federation, which runs 13 academies in south London and is sponsored by Conservative peer Lord Harris. How inevitable then that a ‘spokesman’ for the DfE has announced that ‘Harris are our preferred sponsor for Downhills’. What Whitehall ‘prefers’ is clearly more important than what the people prefer.

Susan Davidson

Education Notes - The Academies swindle /FRFI 225 Feb/Mar 2012

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 225 February/March 2012

‘It was beautiful and simple as all truly great swindles are.’

O Henry, The Octopus Marooned

The Academies programme is a swindle promoted by a government of swindlers that sets back the struggle for working class education by 70 years. The swindle is based on the lie that the private sector, businesses and corporations can provide better education for all than the public sector and make profits at the same time. The swindle is saying that the private sector will respond to the needs and wishes of all parents who want to choose a good school for their children. The swindle hides the vast sum of money that is being transferred from public finances to the private sector to enrich business corporations. The swindle is state funding diverted into the pockets of the government’s supporters, including the Church of England and business leaders, as a reward for political support.

How does the swindle work?

The swindle works by bribing schools one at a time to convert to Academy status and become ‘independent state’ schools.  Schools can become Academies by opting out of Local Education Authority (LEA) control and gaining more autonomy over the admissions of pupils, teachers’ pay and the curriculum. Academies may be run by private sponsors like Harris Carpets or institutions like the Church of England, or be governed directly by the Department for Education (DfE) in Whitehall. Under Education Secretary Michael Gove’s 2010-11 programme a total of 842 LEA schools converted to Academy status in one year, in each case representing a loss of central government funds for the LEAs. The average secondary school which converted to Academy status received a funding bonus of £118,000; in some areas like Hillingdon, this was a £358,000 windfall.

The beauty and the simplicity of the swindle

Under the fundamentalist gospel of Michael Gove, the Academy programme is announced as ‘rooting out underperformance and driving up standards, so that pupils reach their academic potential’. Opponents of the Academies are damned as ‘the enemies of promise’. Who are these enemies who are so mean-hearted as to stand against improvements to education for our children, especially now that the Academies programme is being expanded to up to 200 primary schools that are judged to be ‘underperforming’? They include many of the parents, teachers and governors whose schools are threatened with a compulsory switch to Academy status and quitting the LEA. These Academy resisters believe that schools that are sponsored by religious groups, businesses or institutions like the armed forces are not what they want for their children. Further they have seen the evidence that an increasing number of Academies are ‘inadequate’ and that they have a higher than average rate of pupil exclusion.

So, for example, the private school chain, Woodward Academies Trust, which owns 19 private schools across the UK including the £26,000 a year King’s College in Taunton, Somerset, sponsors an Academy in West Sussex which has been judged as ‘failing to provide an acceptable standard of education’. Woodward, the largest group of Church of England schools in the country, joins the United Church Schools Trust – the largest sponsor of Academies – in failing an inspection of its schools. Those who are resisting conversion to Academy status are well aware of the track records of sponsors with insufficient experience of ‘working with schools in challenging areas’. This is why Downhills primary school in Haringey, north London, is one of many schools resisting a compulsory take-over by a private sponsor, as yet unnamed but to be appointed by the DfE.

The swindle spreads

The beauty of the Academies swindle is that while the government is not prepared to increase funding for the 3,127 state schools, it has a pot of money to dole out rewards and privileges to the chosen few. The real object of the swindle is to take schools away from local authority control as a precursor to privatisation. However, in attacking LEA control the swindle also undermines local education responsibilities. Those schools that grab the money first are taking funds away from all other schools in the local area. All inter-school services and extra curricular activities are being starved of funds including English language teaching, special needs support, sport centres and playing fields because of the loss of funding each time a state school opts out of local education.

School places at risk

Many of the Academies and ‘free’ schools (see FRFI 224) are not conversions but newly built with public finances from the DfE and land given from public sites. In the latest announcement, Chancellor Osborne approved a further £1.2 billion to fund additional school places over the next five years but half of this is to be set aside for ‘free’ schools and Academies. Where new schools can spring up in an area that the sponsors choose, there is a major impact on existing school roles and intake. State schools will be forced to close if their intake shrinks as the result of a new Academy or ‘free’ school suddenly appearing in the locality. LEAs are already badly damaged in their ability to plan for the future needs and provision of school places in their areas. At this time 20% of primary schools are full or over capacity and a shortfall of 65,000 primary places in London alone by 2015 is predicted. It is increasingly unclear who has the responsibility for local pupils. This issue has already arisen because of the large number of pupils excluded from Academy schools who are thrown back into a local authority system that has lost funding for them. The statutory duty to ensure that every child has a school place is under threat when public services are outsourced to the private sector and the future will be filled with legal battles as parents demand schooling.

Fighting the swindle

The state education that emerged as part of the state welfare system in 1944 was by no means equitable, but it was free, universal and asserted basic rights in childhood, including health checks, free school meals, services for children with special needs and a place in a local school. First Labour, then the ConDem government, attacked state provision as inefficient, inflexible, and over-regulated. The Anti-Academy Alliance is active throughout England demanding an end to this lie. Communities must resist their schools being hived off to private sector interests.

Susan Davidson

More Articles ...

  1. Education notes: Mr Gove and his box of magic tricks/ FRFI 224 December 2011/January 2012
  2. There is no such thing as a free lunch ... or a free school / FRFI 223 Oct/Nov 2011
  3. Education notes - How not to spend the money / FRFI 222 Aug/Sep 2011
  4. Bribery and corruption in the school system / FRFI 221 Jun/Jul 2011
  5. Not ‘dream’ schools but nightmares /FRFI 220 April/May 2011
  6. English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) – target of the cuts! - 26 Feb 2011
  7. Students mobilise against attacks on education / FRFI 219 Feb/Mar 2011
  8. Class privilege: still the driving force of the education system in Britain / FRFI 219 Feb/Mar 2011
  9. Stop the cuts! Defend the protesters! / FRFI 219 Feb/Mar 2011
  10. Higher education under threat /FRFI 218 Dec 2010 / Jan 2011
  11. FRFI editor speaks at UCL occupation - 2 Dec 2010
  12. Dismantling state education / FRFI 217 Oct/Nov 2010
  13. Labour opened the school gates and the Coalition walked in / FRFI 216 Aug/Sep 2010
  14. Spies on Campus
  15. Education ‘The golden age of outsourcing’ / FRFI 215 Jun/Jul 2010
  16. Fighting cuts in universities / FRFI 215 Jun/ Jul 2010
  17. Education Notes: Hot air, inequality and cutbacks / FRFI 213 Feb / Mar 2010
  18. Education notes: No surprises in summer exam results – only pain / FRFI 211 Oct / Nov 2009
  19. Learn now – pay later
  20. Education Notes: reasons to be cheerful
  21. ‘Those are my principles – if you don’t like them I have others’ Groucho Marx / FRFI 210 Aug / Sep 2009
  22. Education notes: The education profiteers / FRFI 209 Jun / Jul 2009
  23. The big business of higher education
  24. Clampdown in universities
  25. Living in imperialist Britain? Then you must be in SAIN!