New York Times demands a ‘new start’ for US-Cuba relations

In an unprecedented move, the New York Times (NYT) has published a series of editorials demanding the US take bold steps to re-establish diplomatic ties with Cuba.1 Throughout October and November, six editorials under the title of ‘Cuba: a new start’ praise Cuba’s role in fighting Ebola, detail US subversion against Cuba and demand Obama lift the US blockade and negotiate a prisoner swap, releasing the remaining three Cuban anti-terrorist prisoners in return for imprisoned subcontractor Alan Gross. This is a public emergence of serious divisions in the US ruling class on Cuba policy as sections push for their economic interests over political interests. NICA EVANS and SAM MCGILL report.

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World Bank finds Cuban education best in Latin America and the Caribbean

In Britain the rate of illiteracy is rising and education continues to be systematically destroyed by the rise in free schools and academies that are aimed at diverting public finances into private hands. In contrast, socialist Cuba is set to further improve and expand its education system, devoting 13% of its national budget to education, the highest in the world.

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Another USAID attack on Cuba

Protest against USAID's earlier 'Zunzuneo' campaing aimed at destabilising Cuba

A new investigation by the Associated Press (AP) reveals yet another covert mission by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) designed to incite political unrest and undermine the Cuban revolution. Documents released in August exposed a project directed by USAID and subcontracted by Creative Associates, which recruited a dozen young people from Peru, Venezuela and Costa Rica and sent them to Cuba as travellers and tourists in order to ‘identify potential social-change actors’ and organise opposition in order to destabilise the Cuban government. Louise Gartrel reports.

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Cuba approves new foreign investment law to support development

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 240 August/September 2014

May Day in Havana, Cuba 2014

Cuba’s new direct Foreign Investment Law was implemented on 30 June 2014. Unanimously approved in March by the National Assembly of People’s Power, the law is in accordance with the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines for the Party and the Revolution. These guidelines were established by the 6th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba in 2010 and discussed and modified across 163,000 consultations with almost nine million Cubans, before being ratified by the National Assembly of People’s Power in 2011. This extraordinary process of participative democracy governs the principles by which the Foreign Investment Law will operate. As the introduction of the guidelines affirms, ‘only socialism is capable of overcoming the difficulties and preserving the conquests of the Revolution, and that in the updating of the economic model, planning will be supreme, not the market’.

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Bacardi – new advertising, same agenda

The Bacardi Corporation has launched a new deep saturation advertising campaign, with vibrant videos and colourful images. The adverts brandish the Cuban flag, with slogans such as ‘we survived exile from our own country’ and ‘we thrived during Prohibition’. Bacardi, the richest family-owned business in the world, has an army of lawyers and marketing and public relations professionals to clean up their murky past and obscure their right-wing agenda. Scratch the surface, however, and the truth is there.

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Tweets, terrorists and mercenaries renewed attacks on Cuba

In April and May 2014, news about two US-based attacks on Cuba hit international headlines, demonstrating that as the capitalist crisis intensifies, imperialist attempts to destabilise the popular and revolutionary government of socialist Cuba continue. Louise Gartrel reports.

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Cuban double agent reveals CIA machinations in Cuba

Enemigo by Raúl Capote, Editorial Jose Marti, 2011 (in Spanish)

Review by Raidel López

In Enemigo (Enemy), Cuban writer and university professor of history, Raúl Capote, reveals his life as a double agent; agent Pablo for the CIA, and agent Daniel for Cuban intelligence. This is not a work of fiction or a classic spy novel. It is the real experience narrated by the protagonist about plans by the CIA and its allies to destroy the Cuban Revolution. His story reveals one of the many facets of the US war against Cuba. For over half a century plans of espionage, sabotage, terrorist attacks, assassination, subversion, military, economic and political aggression, have been made and executed from the US. Most of these plans have failed, thanks to the work and sacrifice of men like Capote.

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Cuba inaugurates new port with international partners

On 27 January, Cuban President Raul Castro and Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff inaugurated the first 700 metre section of a container terminal at the port of Mariel, Cuba, in a ceremony attended by the Presidents of Haiti, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guyana and the Prime Minister of Jamaica. Raul Castro declared: ‘This container terminal, and the powerful infrastructure accompanying it, are a concrete example of the optimism and confidence with which we Cubans see a socialist and prosperous future.’ The heads of state were in Havana for a summit of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (see FRFI 237).

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RATB hosts international rally for the Cuban Five in the heart of London

Video credit: See Li Photo Capital

On Sunday 9 March activists from the US, Canada, Latin America, Cuba and Europe joined a rally hosted by Rock around the Blockade (RATB) in Trafalgar Square to demand justice and freedom for the Cuban Five: five Cuban men arrested in Miami in 1998, convicted on trumped up charges and condemned to long prison sentences. They were in fact trying to prevent acts of terrorism against Cuba by infiltrating violent exile groups in Miami. None of the charges against them involved violence, weapons or damage to property. Since 1959, nearly 3,500 Cubans have died and over 2,000 have been injured as a result of terrorist attacks and aggression – mainly launched from Miami.

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Free the Cuban Five! International activists rally in Trafalgar Square, London, 9 March 2014



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 RATB hosts international rally in London - See our facebbook page for more photos

The sun was out in London, as members of Rock around the Blockade (RATB) were joined by activists, writers, musicians and academics from around the world to demand freedom for the Cuban Five and to show solidarity with socialist Cuba. The rally was held in support of the International Committee of Inquiry into the Case of the Cuban Five, which took place in London over the previous two days.

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Havana Summit: building regional solidarity

On 28-29 January 2014, Havana hosted the Second Summit of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC in Spanish), with the participation of the heads of states and other representatives of all 33 independent nations in the region. The Summit ended Cuba’s one-year presidency of CELAC, which focused on combating regional poverty, hunger and inequality. Cuba is part of CELAC’s three member troika, along with Chile, which held the presidency in 2012 and Costa Rica, which takes over in 2014. Over 30 documents were drawn up for discussion and analysis, including a Plan of Action, and standards and principles to govern co-operation. The Summit was preceded by two days of discussions by national experts on 25-26 January and a meeting of ministers on 27 January. Helen Yaffe reports.

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Pressure to end the US blockade of Cuba grows – even in the US

On 26 November 2013, the Cuban Interests Section (a substitute for an embassy) in the United States announced that it would immediately halt its consular services – the issuing of visas, passports services and the authentification of documents, except in exceptional or humanitarian cases. Its press release explains that in summer 2013, the New York-based M&T Bank had informed the Cuban Interests Section in Washington and Cuba’s permanent mission at the United Nations in New York that it was withdrawing banking services from foreign missions, and therefore ordering the Cubans to close their accounts. It states: ‘Due to the restrictions still in force, derived from the US policy of economic, commercial and financial blockade against Cuba, and despite the numerous efforts made with the [US] Department of State and several banks, it has been impossible for the Cuban Interests Section to find a US bank with branches in the US to operate the bank accounts of the Cuban diplomatic missions.’

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Cuba steps towards monetary unification

Among the key aims in the process of ‘updating’ the Cuban economy, approved by the 6th Congress of the Cuban Communist Party in 2011, is the reunification of Cuba’s two currencies: the Cuban Peso (CUP) and the Cuban Convertible Peso (CUC). In October 2013 it was announced that steps towards this had begun. The CUP has been Cuban currency since 1961. In 1993 during the economic crisis of the Special Period, the US dollar was legalised and ‘dollar shops’ initially opened to sell non-essential or imported items to tourists, as the tourist industry became a growing source of income. The CUC was introduced in around 1993 to substitute the function of the US dollar. It was pegged to the US dollar but printed and controlled by the Cuban Central Bank. Helen Yaffe reports.

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RATB challenges PayPal’s block on its account due to US Blockade

**Rock around the Blockade(RATB) is a campaign of the Revolutionary Communist Group. It defends socialist Cuba and uses its example as part of the struggle for socialism here in Britain. Here we re-post an important article from the website about a recent block on RATB’s PayPal account as a result of the US blockade of Cuba.**

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Cuban socialism: training doctors for the world

10,500 students graduated from Cuba’s medical universities in July 2013. Just over half of them, 5,683, are Cubans and the remaining 4,843 are foreigners from 70 countries and regions. The largest groups of foreign graduates were from Bolivia (855), Ecuador (718), Mexico (444), Argentina (387) and El Salvador (386). They graduated on medical science courses comprising several branches, including medicine, dentistry, nursing, psychology and healthcare technology, which includes 21 different sub-specialties.

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Hypocritical outcry over Cuban arms to North Korea

In mid-July, the Panamanian government seized the Chong Chon Gang, a North Korean cargo boat travelling from Cuba to the Panama Canal. The Panamanian forces claimed to have been tipped off about a drugs cargo. On board, however, were 10,000 tons of Cuban sugar and 240 metric tons of ‘obsolete defensive armaments’, according to the Cubans’ own statement.

The seizure was greeted with condemnation and sensationalist media headlines about violations of UN sanctions on arms sales to North Korea. The Cuban Ministry of Foreign Affairs made a public statement listing the contents of the shipment as: two anti-aircraft missile batteries, nine disassembled rockets, two MiG-21 aircrafts and 15 MiG engines – ‘all manufactured in the mid-90s – to be repaired and returned to our country’. The statement asserted Cuba’s need to ‘maintain our defence capacity in order to preserve national sovereignty’, and the country’s ‘firm and irrevocable commitment to peace, disarmament – including nuclear disarmament – and respect for international law’. The cruel, punitive US blockade of Cuba has been robustly denounced in the UN General Assembly for two decades and yet nothing is done to lift it – so there is little reason for Cuba to adhere to sanctions against North Korea in any case.

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US blockade ‘attempted genocide’

The economic war against Cuba, Salim Lamrani, Monthly Review Press, New York 2013, 142pp, ISBN 978 1 583673 40 9

Salim Lamrani provides a concise look at the US blockade imposed on Cuba since 1960. His book gives an overview of how policy towards Cuba has changed since the revolution of 1959 as the US has become more determined to destroy the revolution. The blockade has been used not only to strangle Cuba’s economy but also to stop essential food and medicines reaching the island. Fidel Castro described the blockade as ‘attempted genocide’.

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FAO congratulates Fidel

On 29 April, José Graziano da Silva, Director-General of the United Nations Organisation for Food and Agriculture (FAO), sent congratulations to Fidel Castro, historic leader of the Cuban Revolution, and the Cuban people, ‘for having fulfilled in advance the goal set by the World Food Summit, held in Rome in November 1996, that proposed to halve the number of undernourished people in each country by the year 2015.’ Da Silva adds that Fidel’s speech at that Summit still lingers in their collective memory, especially his conclusion that: ‘the bells that toll today for those who die of hunger every day, will toll tomorrow for humanity if it refused, failed or could not be wise enough to save them.’

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Cuba and the US terror lists

Since 1959, nearly 3,500 Cubans have been killed and 2,100 permanently maimed as a result of terrorism launched from the United States by groups with links to the US government. Not a single US citizen has been injured or killed by terrorism linked to revolutionary Cuba. The only Cuban terrorists are counter-revolutionaries recruited by the CIA. Most infamous among them is Luis Posada Carriles, who lives freely in Miami. President Obama has excelled in the US practice of state terror: through its occupying armies, support for dictators, rendition flights, torture of prisoners, forced feeding of hunger strikers in Guantanamo prison camp, drone-strike assassinations around the world and repression of internal dissent. Yet in the topsy turvy world of imperialism, the US labels socialist Cuba as a state sponsor of terrorism and points to black revolutionary Assata Shakur to prove it. Helen Yaffe reports.

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Cuban elections: triumph of democracy

On 24 February 2013, a new government was formed in Cuba when the recently elected delegates to the National Assembly of People’s Power met to vote in the new Council of State. On 3 February, 90.8% of eligible voters had turned out to vote for candidates at provincial and national levels. Massive voter turnout is usual in socialist Cuba where the masses are politically engaged. Victoria Smith reports.

Cubans over the age of 16 vote every two and a half years for representatives to the Municipal Assemblies of People’s Power and every five years for representatives to Provincial Assemblies. Half of 614 delegates voted into the National Assembly are voted up from Municipal and Provincial Assemblies, whilst the other half represent the various organisations of the masses.

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The grotesque circus of Yoani Sanchez

International prize-winning Cuban opposition ‘blogger’, Yoani Sanchez, is touring 12 countries over three continents in 80 days. She plays the lead in a grotesque circus performance which sees a handful of counter-revolutionaries jet-set to high-profile platforms, mainly in the US and Europe, to call for ‘regime change’ in Cuba. Others include Berta Soler, from the Ladies in White, and fellow ‘blogger’ Eliecer Avila. This follows the relaxation of Cuban migration legislation earlier this year (see FRFI 230). The tours are exposing the hypocrisy of these so-called champions of human rights and their links to imperialist interests. Helen Yaffe reports.*

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US ‘democracy’ programme Exposed

Documents posted on the US National Security Archive website on 18 January 2013 reveal that the government has ‘between five to seven different transition plans’ for Cuba, and that USAID-funded ‘democracy’ programmes designed to promote regime change are ‘an operational activity’ requiring ‘continuous discretion’. The documents were filed in a US court in response to a $60 million lawsuit filed by the family of Alan Gross, a US citizen serving a 15-year prison sentence in Cuba for ‘subversion against the state and the revolution’, against his employer Development Alternatives Inc (DAI).

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Breakthroughs in the fight against cancer

In 2012, Cuban health care continued to achieve successes, despite the US blockade and the global economic crisis. Infant mortality was 4.6 per 1,000 live births, almost equal to that of the UK (4.56 per 1,000) and superior to that of the US (6 per 1,000) despite Cuba spending $431 per capita on health compared to $3,480 in Britain and $8,362 in the US (2010 statistics, World Health Organisation). It is also far superior to other Caribbean countries or other nations with similar GDPs.

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Death of a revolutionary - Enrique Oltuski Osacki

 Enrique Oltuski

Enrique Oltuski Osacki
18 October 1930-16 December 2012

Enrique Oltuski made an indelible contribution to the revolutionary struggle in 1950s Cuba, to the process of socialist transition and as member of government until his death, aged 83, on 16 December 2012. Oltuski led the urban wing of the Movement of the 26th July (M26J) in central Cuba in the final year before the Revolution toppled the Batista dictatorship in January 1959. The English publication of his memoirs, Vida Clandestina, was politically important in undermining the lie that Cuba’s urban population was not active in the revolutionary struggle.

Born in Cuba in 1930 to a family of Polish Jewish immigrants, his family lived in Santa Clara in central Cuba, where his parents’ business prospered. Oltuski wanted for nothing, bothered only by the grinding daily poverty around him: ‘I saw barefoot children my own age begging, elderly people dressed in rags. At night women with children in their arms slept in the doorways of public buildings and in parks…we concluded that this had to be changed.’*

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New migration laws in revolutionary Cuba

Photo © Virgilio Ponce

The new migration laws to be enacted on 14 January 2013 present a challenge to US imperialism and should bring political and economic benefits to Cuba. Announced in October 2012, the legislation removes the requirement of an exit visa, known as a ‘white card’, and letter of invitation for Cubans planning to travel overseas, and extends the period for which Cubans may stay overseas without losing citizenship rights. The measures also facilitate the return to Cuba, either permanently or for visits, of Cubans currently living overseas, including those who left illegally or who abandoned internationalist missions. Helen Yaffe reports.

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After Hurricane Sandy, Cuba and ALBA countries respond with socialist solidarity

Hurricane Sandy in CubaBefore it landed on the coast of the USA, Hurricane Sandy had already affected the Caribbean, with massive destruction being left in its wake in Haiti, Jamaica and Cuba.

The storm landed on eastern Cuba on 25 October, by which point 330,000 people had been evacuated, including 3000 agricultural workers working on the coffee harvest. Despite the evacuation, 11 people were killed by the storm which had a maximum wind speed of 175 km per hour. In total, 200,000 homes have been damaged by the hurricane and extensive damage was done to the electricity and telecommunications infrastructure of Holguin and Santiago de Cuba, the two provinces most affected.

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Media lies at death of Oswaldo Paya

On 22 July, Oswaldo Paya died in a car accident on Cuba’s Las Tunas-Bayamo highway near Las Gabinas in Granma Province. Paya was a leading member of the counter-revolutionary organisation Christian Liberation Movement, which has been involved in trying to destabilise the socialist government of Cuba since 1987. In 2002 Paya received the European Union’s Sakharov Prize for his attempts to undermine Cuban socialism. Oswaldo Paya had been receiving funding from right-wing organisations in Spain and Sweden, including the governing Partido Popular in Spain. Inevitably, the crash was seized on as political ammunition by Cuba’s enemies, who fuelled a barrage of accusations and internet rumours alleging that the accident had been deliberately engineered.

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Free the Cuban Five

On Saturday 15 September, Rock around the Blockade (RATB) activists held street rallies in London, Manchester, Newcastle and Glasgow to mark 14 years of unjust incarceration of the Cuban Five in the US and to demand their release. The Cuban Five’s only crime was attempting to prevent terrorism against the Cuban people launched from the United States and tolerated or assisted by the US government. They were arrested in 1998 after passing information on to the US government about terrorist acts against Cuba planned in Miami by right-wing exile groups. Pointing to the hypocrisy of the so-called War on Terror, RATB activists also highlighted Cuba’s socialist development and welfare as an alternative to the poverty, marginalisation, war and environmental destruction of today’s imperialist dominated world. The persecution of the Five is just part of a continual campaign to destroy the Revolution.

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The legacy of Teofilo Stevenson: socialist boxer 1952-2012

After winning his second Olympic gold medal at Montreal Olympics in 1976, Cuban boxer Teofilo Stevenson refused all bribes by international promoters to encourage him to defect from Cuba with the words: ‘What is one million dollars compared to the love of eight million Cubans?’

Teofilo Stevenson, the Cuban boxer regarded as one of the greatest in the world, died of a heart attack in June at the age of 60. Born to poor immigrant parents, Teofilo benefited from the new social programmes introduced by the revolutionary government after 1959. He went on to become three-time amateur world champion and three times Olympic gold medallist. Many argued that he was in the same league as, if not better than, Muhammad Ali, regarded by many as the greatest boxer ever to have lived. At his death, Muhammad Ali paid tribute to Teofilo, stating: ‘He would have been a formidable opponent to any reigning heavyweight champion or challenger. He was one of the greats of the world. May he rest in peace.’

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Socialism and equality in Cuba: the fight for LGBT rights

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism 228 August/September 2012

‘Socialism and discrimination are incompatible’. (Mariela Castro, director of Cenesex)

The exuberant parade down the main street of Cienfuegos in Cuba on 17 May to celebrate the country’s fifth annual International Day against Homophobia should lay to rest the old lie peddled by Cuba’s detractors on the right and so-called ‘left’ alike, that socialist Cuba abuses gay rights.

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Cuban ‘exiles’ get a bitter taste of capitalist free market in Spain

When Cuba’s tiny opposition protests against the socialist government it is reported in the international media. In April 2012, however, when members of this same opposition, in ‘exile’ in Spain, protested against the Spanish government’s decision to stop subsidising them, they barely received mention. The move has given them a taste of the capitalist free market, where accommodation, health care and education are bought and not provided, and where labour is sold as a commodity.

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Syrian rebels meet Cuban 'dissidents' in Miami – June 2012

Reception for the Cuban-Syrian seminar participants given by the Florida Governor Rick ScottA chorus of reaction, singing from imperialism’s hymn sheet

On 1 May 2012, a week-long joint training seminar took place in Miami for members of the Cuban and Syrian ‘armed opposition’. A statement was signed which read,

‘the Cuban Resistance and Syrian Revolution jointly agree: to coordinate all of our political, diplomatic, logistic and humanitarian efforts in pursuit of the liberation of Cuba and Syria; hence constituting a United Front of Freedom and Democracy; therefore, the Cuban Resistance and the Syrian Revolution jointly declare: the people want the overthrow of the dictatorial regimes of Assad and Castro.’

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Internationalism at the core of the Cuban revolution

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism 226 April/May 2012

‘ALBA, and especially CELAC, are the only things that may save Latin America.’

Orlando Borrego

On the brigade, it was made abundantly clear to us that internationalism is at the core of the revolution. The clearest illustration of this is Cuba’s central role in the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) and the Community for Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) – two regional organisations that aim to act as a counterweight to US imperialist control in the region.

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Cuban socialism: deepening democracy, increasing productivity

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism 226 April/May 2012

‘Cuba faces two options – economic collapse, or updating the economy, building the only possible socialism in Cuba’.

Noel Carillo, Department of International Relations of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba

Handing over sport equipment in Ho Chi Minh Park, Havana

Cuba has been subjected to a harsh economic and political blockade by the US for over 50 years. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the beginning of the Special Period in the 1990s, Cuba has been in a state of economic crisis. The country lost 35% of its GDP and 80% of its trade overnight. Yet the revolution’s commitment to meeting the needs of its people has never wavered: not a single hospital or old people’s home was closed and no one starved.

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Brigade itinerary

Friday 10 February

  • Meeting with the Cuban Institute of Friendship between Peoples (ICAP)
  • Meeting with the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC)
  • Visit to ‘Leonor Pérez’ maternity home, Old Havana

Saturday 11 February

  • Meeting with Orlando Borrego, Member of July 26 Movement who fought alongside Che Guevara in the Rebel Army and was his vice-president at the Ministry of Industries
  • Meeting with Committee for the Defence of the Revolution (CDR), Boyeros, Havana

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Solidarity needed to free the Cuban 5

The Cuban 5 are Gerardo Hernandez, Rene Gonzalez, Antonio Guerrero, Ramon Labanino and Fernando Gonzalez. They were convicted in 2001 by a Miami jury, in a hostile anti-Cuban environment, on charges ranging from spying to conspiracy to commit murder and endangering the security of the US. They are guilty of nothing more than peacefully trying to protect Cuba against terrorism. All their successful appeals have subsequently been overturned – the US will not permit a fair trial which would expose its funding and harbouring of real terrorists.

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Cuba: securing the revolution

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 225 February/March 2012
Pohto: RATB celebrates 53 years of Cuban socialism at the Angel, Islington, January 2012

RATB celebrates 53 years of Cuban socialism at the Angel, Islington, January 2012

Reporting on the Sixth Congress of the Cuban Communist Party (CCP) of April 2011 and the approval of the Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution we said: ‘New measures and legislation will be announced in Cuba in the coming months as the guidelines are implemented. Although there will be no surprises, we can expect these to be met by the sensationalist exclamations about the advent of capitalism from the enemies of Cuban socialism’ (FRFI 221). This has indeed been the case with the bourgeois (and social democratic) media focusing on legislation implemented or anticipated to:

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‘Justice for the Cuban 5’ solidarity brigade to Cuba

In February, activists from the solidarity campaign Rock around the Blockade will travel to Cuba as the ‘Justice for the Cuban 5’ brigade to find out:

  • What lies behind the recent reforms and how will they effect Cuban socialism?
  • Does the Cuban Revolution retain its mass support among the population?
  • What is the impact of the US blockade on Cuban development?
  • Is Cuba able to maintain its high-standard, universal welfare provision during the global economic crisis which has seen the public sector under threat in the wealthiest nations?

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‘Justice for the Cuban 5’ solidarity brigade returns from Cuba – February 2012

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Between 9 and 22 February 2012, 13 Rock around the Blockade activists visited Cuba on the campaign’s 12th solidarity brigade to the revolutionary island.

During their 2-week visit, brigadistas witnessed the realities of Cuban socialism first-hand - from meeting revolutionaries organising in their local communities (Committees for the Defence of the Revolution) to working alongside farm workers and discussing the latest developments in Cuba with trade unionists and Communist Party members.

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Assata Shakur, former Black Panther, speaks from exile in Cuba

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 131, June/July 1996

Assata Shakur

Assata Shakur was a political activist in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. As a member of the Black Panther Party, she was targeted by the FBI under its counter-intelligence programme, COINTELPRO. She was framed for the murder of a New Jersey State Trooper and sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1979 she escaped from prison and since 1985 has been in political exile in Cuba. David Yaffe spoke to her there on behalf of FRFI.

FRFI: How did you come to be in Cuba?

Assata Shakur: Well, I have admired Cuba since I was at college. I read everything about Cuba that I could get my hands on. So, when I escaped from prison, my first idea was Cuba. But it took me five years to get here. I couldn’t write beforehand and say ‘Dear Fidel, I would like to come to your country’. I just had to come and, luckily, people here knew who I was and they gave me the status of a political refugee.

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Cuban oil exploration - the revolution digs deep

Fight Racism! Fight Imperialism! 224 December 2011/January 2012

‘I asked Che, if you think there’s oil in the Gulf, why don’t we go and investigate? He told me that we can’t because the technology doesn’t exist.’ Juan Valdes Gravalosa*

Today, the technology to which Che aspired is steaming across the oceans towards the northern coast of Cuba in the form of Scarabeo 9; a $750 million investment by the Cuban government in one of the world’s largest semi-submersible oil drilling rigs. Drilling on exploratory wells in the Gulf of Mexico will begin before the end of 2011.

In mid-November 2011, Rafael Tenreiro, head of exploration for the state-owned oil company Cubapetroleo, stated: ‘It is not a matter of if we have oil, it is a matter of when we are going to start producing.’ JOSEPH ESKOVITCHL reports.

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Women, the crisis and the cuts - Cuba shows the alternative


In a time of global crisis, Cuba represents a unique reality for women. Understanding that sexual equality is necessarily bound with economic and political equality, women's emancipation is crucial to the ongoing process of revolution. The huge grassroots political involvement of the people, and the planned economy driven by their needs, means that society actively works to challenge sexism and inequality. Accordingly, Cuba stands out in The World Economic Forum's study on gender disparity and economics - despite its small economy and the blockade which attempts to strangle development, its women rank highly in health, education, political and economic equality. The index shows Cuba's gender disparity has improved; Britain, despite its imperialist wealth, is only four places above Cuba, and has fallen in ranking.

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Cuban trade unions: committed to socialism and the defence of workers

Since the mid-2000s, Cuba’s revolutionary government has introduced numerous measures to recover from the economic crisis of the 1990s and improve the efficiency of Cuban socialism. This process has intensified since 2008 to deal with economic and financial problems aggravated by the international crisis. Among these policies are changes to the employment structure. In September 2010, the Cuban Trade Union Confederation (CTC) announced plans to transfer one million unproductive state sector workers into alternative employment between 2011 and 2015; half of them by March 2011. Alternative employment includes understaffed areas of the state sector, cooperatives and self-employment. These changes were further detailed in the Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, distributed and debated nationwide from November 2010, modified according to popular demand at the Congress of the Cuban Communist Party (CCP) (see FRFI 221) in April 2011 and approved in the National Assembly in July.

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Rene Gonzalez to be released - punishment to continue

Rene Gonzalez in prison with his daughters Irmita and Ivette during a visit

On Friday 7 October, Rene Gonzalez, one of the Cuban Five incarcerated in United States since 1998 for combating terrorism against Cuba, faces a ‘supervised release’ under life-threatening conditions. In 2001, Rene was sentenced to 15 years in prison charged with conspiracy to act as a non-registered foreign agent. He had already spent 33 months in ‘preventative custody’, including 17 months in isolation in ‘the hole’.

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Free the Cuban Five! - Defend the socialist revolution in Cuba

12 September 2011 will mark 13 years since the arrest in Miami, Florida of five Cuban intelligence agents who had infiltrated right-wing terrorist organisations in the United States to help foil terrorist attacks against the Cuban people. They remain incarcerated in US prisons. The campaign for their release is an essential part of the struggle to defend Cuban socialism. In September, Rock around the Blockade will join activists from around the world demanding the release of the Cuban Five. Ali Ali Erkaslan reports.

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Lazy Left attack Cuba at Marxism 2011 – 30 June 2011


Thursday 30th June was the start of the annual 5-day Marxism event, organised by the Socialist Workers’ Party (SWP), which I attended for the first time.

Having signed up for membership of the SWP in early March of this year, I was convinced by many friendly and enthusiastic fellow members that ‘this year would be the biggest and best ever and not to be missed!’. It certainly was the largest attended in over a decade (approximately 4,500 people according to the SWP) but I for one was left underwhelmed.

I arrived at the Friends House venue in Euston, London for a talk entitled ‘Che Guevara and the Cuban revolution’. The listed speaker was Dave Sewell, billed as a Latin America expert. He spoke for 20 minutes with wave after wave of negative connotation and shallow rhetoric.

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Cuban Communists: in step with the people to improve socialist efficiency

Photo: Ismael Francisco

The Sixth Congress of the Cuban Communist Party (CCP) took place in Havana between the 16 and 19 April 2011, marking the 50th anniversary of two historic events: the declaration of the socialist character of the Cuban Revolution on 16 April 1961 and the defeat of the Bay of Pigs invasion by CIA-trained Cuban exiles, within 72 hours, on the 19 April 1961.

The principal function of the Congress was to discuss, amend and approve the Draft Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution and then to oversee their implementation. Distributed nationally in early November 2010, these guidelines contained 291 proposals for consolidating or amending social and economic policy in twelve broad categories:

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In Memoriam Theodore MacDonald 1933-2011

Fighter for social justice

Theo MacDonald was a committed socialist and anti-imperialist, and, throughout his life as a teacher and a doctor, one of the kindest and funniest of men. He inspired those he met not only to understand injustice but also to challenge it in whatever way they could. He taught, lectured, discussed and wrote with a contagious passion and enthusiasm. ‘Be patient and leave lots of room for good humour,’ he advised. Despite his enormous achievements – over his lifetime he published 40 books and 200 research papers – he was one of the most humble people you could meet.

Theo’s extraordinary life, which took him all over the world, began in Quebec, Canada, where his father was the leader of a fascist movement. Theo ran away from home and lived off his own resources until being taken in by Jesuits who looked after him and educated him. While serving in the Canadian army in Korea, he was taken as a prisoner of war by the North Koreans and, impressed by the anti-imperialist ideology of his captors, defected to North Korea at the end of the war. He later hitched a ride on an East German ship and completed his medical training in East Germany, then part of the Soviet bloc.

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CIA, spies and videotapes – Cuba exposes US programme of subversion

‘The majority of Cubans support Castro...There is no effective opposition...The only foreseeable means of alienating internal support [for the government] is through disenchantment and disaffection based on economic dissatisfaction and hardship... to bring about hunger, desperation and overthrow of government.’

Lester D Mallory, US government official, 6 April 1960

‘Our objective is to accelerate the development of an opposition in Cuba.’

Livingston Merchant,  US government official, 14 January 1960

‘[W]e see very little evidence that the mainline dissident organizations have much resonance among ordinary Cubans... Despite claims that they represent “thousands of Cubans”, we see little evidence of such support.’

Jonathan Farrar, Head of the US Interests Section, Havana, 15 April 2009

During a state visit to Chile on 21 March 2011, US President Obama announced: ‘we’ll continue to seek ways to increase the independence of the Cuban people, who I believe are entitled to the same freedom and liberty as everyone else in this hemisphere.’ The ways sought by the US administration have been amply exposed since January 2011 through two court cases and by four Cuban agents. US policy has evolved, adapted and expanded, but the objective has remained unchanged since 1960 – the destruction of Cuba’ socialist revolution. Helen Yaffe reports.

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Farewell to the real Poderoso: Alberto Granado dies in Havana aged 88. 12 March 2011

Alberto Granado and Che GuevaraOn Saturday 5 March 2011, Alberto Granado, friend of Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara and the Cuban Revolution, died in Havana, aged 88 years. He was born in Cordoba, Argentina in 1922. At university Granado studied biochemistry and joined student protests against the pro-fascist military regime and subsequent President, General Juan Domingo Peron. In 1943 he was imprisoned for one year. In 1945, Granado and Guevara first met when Guevara, still a teenager, began accompanying Granado’s younger brother to visit him in police detention. The two became friends.

Granado recalled: ‘Che impressed me from the first time we spoke. He was this young asthmatic, skinny kid. I saw that he had an important capacity to change seemingly negative things into positives, though his personality and intelligence…He had other positive traits which in my twenties I thought were negative and that was being unable to lie.’[1] The friends were united by their appreciation of literature and their desire to travel. ‘We didn’t have political direction, just the spirit of adventure and yearning for knowledge.’

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Cuban agents prove US finances 'dissidents' – 28 February 2011

Photos: Carlos Serpa Maceira (left) and Moises Rodriguez (right) are congratulated in their respective areas by neighbours who have just watched the television programme Pawns of Imperialism on Saturday 26 February.

The spontaneous demonstration which broke out on Saturday night in Nueva Gerona, capital of Cuba’s Island of Youth, was not the anti-regime uprising for which the US government, bourgeois media, and the internal opposition hopelessly craves. Instead it was a celebration of the revolutionary commitment shown by local resident Carlos Serpa Maceira, as neighbours welcomed him back into the arms of his people.

On the evening of Saturday 26 February, Cuban television broadcast the programme ‘Pawns of Imperialism’ detailing close links between the internal counterrevolution, the right-wing exile community and the government of the United States. Evidence of these links was provided by two Cuban state agents who had infiltrated the ranks of the so-called ‘dissident’ movement. The first was Moisés Rodriguez, who spent 20 years inside the counter-revolution, working closely with the US Interest Section (USIS) in Havana. The second was Carlos Serpa, who spent ten years posing as an ‘independent journalist’ for Radio Martí and numerous blogs and websites. As President of the Union of Free Journalists in Cuba, an organisation without members, Serpa worked closely with the Ladies in White (relatives of US-paid mercenaries imprisoned in Cuba in 2003), accompanying their processions through Havana.

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YouTube censors Cuban journalism for exposing CIA-terrorist Carriles

In January 2011, the US-based video- sharing website YouTube censored the channel of popular website for publishing a video which criticised international terrorist Luis Posada Carriles – responsible for many Cuban deaths and currently on trial in Miami for lying to immigration authorities. Google, which owns YouTube, cut access to CubaDebate’s videos for hosting alleged copyright material of Carriles talking outside court with his lawyers. They refer specifically to a fragment of video which formed part of the presentation from the Miami Legal Fund for Carriles.

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WikiLeaks exposes US attacks on Cuba


Cables released by WikiLeaks have revealed the ugly face of US diplomacy in Latin America: funding subversive groups, propaganda campaigns and military support for right-wing regimes. The main targets are the countries in the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), especially Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and pre-coup Honduras. Murray Andrews reports.

For over 50 years the US government has engaged in a dirty war against the Cuban government. It has implemented a vicious blockade, supported terrorist groups and sabotaged the revolutionary government wherever possible. This has long been known, but rarely admitted. The WikiLeaks cables are changing this.

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Cuba celebrates record fall in infant mortality

Before the Cuban Revolution, 60 children out of every 1,000 live births in Cuba died before they reached one year old. This infant mortality ratio has fallen gradually as a consequence of Cuba’s socialist development. In 2010 it fell to a record low of 4.5 per 1,000 live births (down from 4.8 in 2009) – better than Britain (4.6) and better than the United States (6.8).

Infant mortality statistics are important indicators of the socio-economic conditions within any nation. They reflect the health of the mother which is affected by issues such as safe and adequate water supply, housing and employment conditions, educational level, sufficient and appropriate food and preventative, primary and secondary health care. Infant mortality is also a reflection of the availability of maternal and child health services, including antenatal care (reducing the incidence of low birthweight babies) and trained health professionals at births,  clean water and sanitation. It is an indication of the provision of vaccinations and regular child development monitoring programmes and the general health of the population, including incidence of other diseases such as HIV, TB and malaria.

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Europe’s hypocrisy on ‘human rights’ in Cuba

On 21 October 2010, European Parliament awarded the Sakharov Prize for human rights to Cuban ‘dissident’ Guillermo Fariñas, whose latest hunger strike to demand the release of Cuban political prisoners ended in July 2010 after 135 days. He was kept alive in intensive care by Cuban medics. President of the European Parliament Jerzy Buzek described Fariñas as an independent journalist and a political dissident who is ‘ready to sacrifice himself and risk his health and his life as a way of applying pressure to achieve change in Cuba.’ Buzek did not mention Fariñas’ record of non-political violent crime or his employment under US programmes to destabilise the Cuban Revolution.

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Cuba’s trade prospects improve despite the blockade

Cuba news

From 1 to 6 November 2010, one week after the UN General Assembly overwhelmingly voted against the US blockade, 2,000 companies from 57 countries participated in the 28th International Trade Fair in Havana. Exhibitors included 70 companies from Spain, 30 from China and 12 from the US, down from 35 last year.

Opening the Fair, Foreign Trade Minister Rodrigo Malmierca announ­ced that in the first nine months of 2010, Cuban goods exports had increased 21% while imports had risen just 1%, reducing Cuba’s trade deficit by 7% from 2009 and creating the conditions for the government to deal with its foreign debt. In 2009 the value of Cuban goods trade produced a deficit of 67%, although this does not include significant service export revenues, mainly for medical personnel overseas and tourism.

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The world stands with Cuba against the US blockade

On 26 October, for the 19th consecutive year, Cuba delivered a resolution to the UN General Assembly on ‘The necessity of ending the economic, commercial and financial blockade imposed by the United States of America against Cuba’. Murray Andrews reports on the impact of the blockade and the UN vote.

The US blockade began in July 1960 with the forced reduction of Cuban sugar exports to the US, for which a set ‘quota’ had been established. The Soviet Union stepped in to purchase the surplus sugar and Cuba began nationalising US properties on the island. As the Cuban Revolution radicalised, the US stepped up its attacks using terrorism, sabotage, invasion, political isolation and the economic and trade blockade. By 1963 the US government had frozen Cuban assets in the US.

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Cuba: the drive for efficiency within socialism

‘Accordingly, the individual producer receives back from society – after deductions have been made – exactly what he gives to it.’ (Karl Marx, 1875)

‘Wages today are clearly insufficient to satisfy all needs and have thus ceased to play a role in ensuring the socialist principle that each should contribute according to their capacity and receive according to their work…the Party and government have been studying these and other complex and difficult problems in depth, problems which must be addressed comprehensibly and through a differentiated approach in each concrete case.’ (Raul Castro, 2007)

The announcement by the Cuban Trade Union Confederation (CTC) on 13 September 2010 about plans to reduce the state sector workforce by half a million was greeted with jeering international headlines. Cuba is rarely of interest to the bourgeois press unless it believes there is some crisis to celebrate or that new measures can be interpreted as evidence of a shift from socialism to capitalism. Helen Yaffe reports.

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Cuba: The Drive for Efficiency within Socialism


‘Accordingly, the individual producer receives back from society – after deductions have been made – exactly what he gives to it’ (Marx, 1875)

‘wages today are clearly insufficient to satisfy all needs and have thus ceased to play a role in ensuring the socialist principle that each should contribute according to their capacity and receive according to their work…the Party and government have been studying these and other complex and difficult problems in depth, problems which must be addressed comprehensibly and through a differentiated approach in each concrete case.’ (Raul Castro, 2007)

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The lion roars: Fidel Castro warns of danger of US and Israeli aggression

On 12 July, Fidel Castro, commander-in-chief of the Cuban Revolution, made his first live television appearance in five years. Helen Yaffe reports from Havana.

In an interview on the daily live current affairs programme, Mesa Redonda (‘Round Table’), Fidel analysed current US and Israeli hostilities against Iran, warning that they could result in a brutal and possibly nuclear conflagration. This has been the recent focus of his regular Reflections, which are read around the world. Fidel has also been highly visible on visits to research centres and the Havana aquarium, talking to workers, scientists, economists and enthusiastic supporters.

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New dog, old tricks Obama ratchets up attack on Cuba

New dog, old tricks Obama ratchets up attack on Cuba

In spring 2010, Cuba came under renewed attack as politicians and the corporate media worldwide portrayed the revolutionary government as a repressive dictatorship struggling to stem a growing tide of discontent. This offensive is orchestrated by the Obama administration which is continuing the 50-year war against Cuban socialism. The strategy is simple but effective: demonise the enemy to win public consent for an intensification of conflict. The backdrop to the current campaign is the global capitalist crisis, Raul Castro’s defence of the socialist system and the growing influence of Cuba in Latin America and around the world. In the face of this intensification of hostility, Cuba and its supporters have continued to fight back and expose the lies, distortions and hypocrisy.[1] Helen Yaffe provides a framework for understanding the escalation of the attack on Cuban socialism.

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Defend Socialist Cuba Against Media Lies

Download and send this letter to protest against British interference in Cuba.

Hundreds of revolutionaries take to the streets to protest at a parade by the ‘Ladies in White’ on 21 March 2010 shouting slogans against the European Union at Volker Pellet, deputy head of the German embassy, and Michael Upton (R), deputy head of the British embassy. These diplomats were violating the principle of non-intervention and non-interference by supporting the ‘Ladies’ who have publicly admitted being funded from the US.

In this time of global economic crisis people’s livelihoods are being attacked while bankers boast of their bonuses. Politicians compete in an electoral fraud to cover up savage cuts in health, education and social services. While British government complicity in torture is repeatedly exposed and the bloody imperialist occupation in Afghanistan intensifies, the BBC has dedicated its resources to focusing on group of less than 30 Cuban women, known as the ‘Ladies in White’, protesting against supposed human rights abuses in Cuba. Why is this?

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Socialism is good for the environment

fidel rio

The World Wide Fund for Nature Living Planet Report 2006 pointed to Cuba as the only nation in the world to have achieved sustainable development, which it described as having a United Nations human development index score of 0.8 or more, with a measure of human demand on the biosphere of 1.8 global hectares per person or less. That Cuba is able to achieve sustainable development is because it is socialist. State ownership and central planning, along with a grassroots system of participatory democracy, facilitate a rational allocation of resources for the benefit of the population’s collective interests. That Cuba stands alone in this achievement supports Marx’s contention that socialism is needed to overcome human alienation from nature under capitalism. David Hetfield reports.

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Cuban socialism in 2010 – debate, reflection and consolidation

Cuba began 2010 debating and reflecting on how to consolidate its socialist system. Three events which took place in December 2009 illustrate the Revolution’s challenges and strengths: the National Assembly of People’s Power which reviewed the progress and problems faced in 2009 and debated plans for 2010; the 8th Summit of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) hosted in Havana; and a spontaneous mobilisation of ordinary Cubans against US government attempts to create a counter-revolution (see box). From Havana, Sam Mcgill reports.

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Cubans Mobilise Against Imperialist Mercenaries

For half a century US imperialism has gone to staggering lengths to destroy the Cuban Revolution and damage the example it sets for the oppressed people of the world. This aim is embedded in the US Constitution itself. The US blockade (1961), invasion (1961), the threat of nuclear war (1962) and attempts to isolate Cuba on the international stage, have failed to destroy the Revolution. The Obama administration is stepping up efforts to create an internal opposition among the Cuban people, ‘investing’ $55 million in 2009 alone in this endeavour. These attempts are failing miserably. Imperialist powers and their allies continue to underestimate the revolutionary strength of the Cuban people, demonstrated in December 2009 when just one neighbourhood in Havana took to the streets in response to a group of imperialist-paid mercenaries known as the Women in White.

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US can’t ignore Cuba’s advances in health

The US is under pressure from sections of its ruling class to moderate the blockade of Cuba. In November, a high-level science delegation travelled to Cuba to ‘explore research issues and multilateral science values that might be conducive to US-Cuba scientific cooperation’. The delegation included Anthony Rock, CEO of the Association of Science-Technology Centers and former acting Assistant Secretary of State for Science, Technology, Environment and Health Affairs, and professor Lawrence Wilkerson, chief of staff to ex-Secretary of State Colin Powell from 2002 to 2005.

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Obituary: Juan Almeida Bosque

‘¡Aquí no se rinde nadie!’ ‘No one surrenders here!’

On Sunday 13 September the Cuban flag was lowered to half mast across the island to mourn the death of Juan Almeida Bosque, aged 82, who died of a heart attack two days earlier. Tens of thousands of people paid their respects in every province in Cuba, led by Raul Castro in Revolution Square in Havana.

Almeida had participated in the revolutionary struggle against Batista from the outset in 1952, becoming a Commander of the Revolution, a member of the Political Bureau of the Cuban Communist Party (CCP) since its formation in 1965, a delegate in the National Assembly and a vice president of the governing Council of State; positions he held until his death. He was also president of the Association of Combatants, founded in 1993 for veterans from the 1950s struggle and from Cuba’s military interventions in Africa and elsewhere in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.

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Cuban socialism: ‘To be educated is to be free’

For 50 years since the Revolution of 1959, Cuba has shown what can be accomplished in the fields of education and culture by a society that puts people before profit, promoting cooperation not competition. Its democratic planned economy has made possible remarkable achievements that have benefited the entire Cuban population and, through Cuba’s internationalism, millions of poor people around the world. Rebecca Rensten and Helen Yaffe report.

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Cuban socialism shows the way for biotech and pharma

With far fewer resources, socialist planning has achieved results to match those of the biggest capitalist powers and has, in some instances, even exceeded them. Without prior expertise, and beginning in the 1961-1965 period, Cuba began to develop a pharmaceutical and biotechnological industry that now rivals those of the advanced industrial capitalist countries. This is the result of the priorities and planning to meet society’s needs. Charles Chinweizu reports.

This industry has been developed despite the US blockade, with the support of the socialist bloc, and with the prime objective of enabling Cuba to develop its socioeconomic prospects and improve the health of its population. Cuba has also helped to develop the biotechnological industries of India (prime manufacturer of generics for the ‘third world’), China and Malaysia, boosting the sovereignty of these underdeveloped countries via ‘south south’ technology transfer.

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A call for reflection, restraint and responsibility

FRFI 163 October / November 2001

Extracts from the statement from Radio Havana Cuba

...The most powerful nation on earth has been put on a war footing and history has taught us all what to expect when Washington starts waving the cudgel self-righteously. The families of almost a million Japanese, four million Koreans, three million Vietnamese, and thousands of Iraqis and Yugoslavians can all attest to what occurs when the Oval Office scrambles its bombers.

...But who is the ‘enemy?’ The enemy are successive Washington administrations that have for more than five decades promoted terrorism on an enormous scale across the globe. Administrations that have trained international military personnel in techniques of torture and terrorism in its meek-sounding School of the Americas. Administrations that have for 40 years permitted and supported terrorist attacks against its island neighbour whose only crime was to advocate a different socio-political system. Administrations that introduced the world to nuclear holocaust, to carpet bombing, to horrendous use of phosphorous and napalm bombs. Administrations that maintain an economic blockade that is directly responsible for the loss of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi children's lives. Administrations that support one of the most repressive, brutal and racist regimes on earth with massive flows of money and weapons to use against the Palestinian people. Administrations that financed the Latin American dictatorships of the eighties and then later ‘apologised’ for some of the unspeakable crimes they committed in the name of ‘democracy’

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Cuban communists against terrorism and war

FRFI 164 December 2001 / January 2002

‘The war in Afghanistan must be stopped…this war has targeted children, the civilian population and International Red Cross hospitals and facilities as well as enemies…an endless slaughter, with the most sophisticated weaponry, of a dispossessed, starving, helpless people. This war will never be justified from the point of view of ethics and international law. Those responsible for it will one day be judged by history.’

Cuban Foreign Secretary Felipe Perez Roque, demanding a United Nations debate on the war in Afghanistan, 13 November 2001

Immediately after the 11 September attacks on the US, when Cuba was amongst the first countries to offer aid and support to the victims, Fidel Castro warned that ‘the tragedy should not be used to unleash an endless carnage of innocent people’ whose first victims would be ‘the billions of people living in the poor and underdeveloped world.’ Ever since, Cuba’s opposition to the war in Afghanistan has been resolute.

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Guantanamo Bay - No hiding place for torturers

On 6 March, the United Nations demanded that the US concentration camp in Guantanamo be closed down, that all torture must cease immediately, as must the force-feeding of detainees on hunger strike, and that the remaining 500+ detainees be tried or set free. In the face of this uncompromising denunciation, even the US’s staunchest ally, Prime Minister Tony Blair, was forced into the grudging admission that the Guantanamo camp is an ‘anomaly’ that should be closed ‘sooner rather than later’.

That the true horror of what has been going on in Guantanamo and other US torture camps is beginning to emerge is testimony to the courage of the detainees and all those who have campaigned to expose the crimes committed by the US administration and British complicity in those crimes.

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FRFI 201 February / March 2008

Between 21 February and 7 March representatives of three generations of revolutionary Cubans will be speaking around Britain. They bring with them direct experience of a working class in power. Cuban socialism has placed human beings at the centre of society and development. Cubans enjoy a system of social welfare provision which is among the best in the world. They have created a system of democratic representation which gives an active role to all sectors of society. The Cuban revolution has become synonymous with international solidarity, sending doctors and educators around the globe. All this achieved despite nearly 50 years of military and political aggression from the United States, including a brutal economic blockade.

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Why does the British left attack Cuba?

On Saturday 11 July, Rock around the Blockade (RATB) supporters were subjected to a stream of anti-Cuban prejudice when the organisation debated the case for Cuban socialism with the Alliance for Workers’ Liberty (AWL). RATB agreed to the debate because we recognise that as the crisis deepens, it is the urgent task of socialists to confront imperialism and build an anti-imperialist movement in this country. Cuba is in the forefront of that struggle world-wide and its stance is recognised by progressive and revolutionary forces throughout the world. As it continues to denigrate Cuba’s achievements and its principled standpoint, the Trotskyist left in Britain, always completely hostile to Cuban socialism, is now playing a counter-revolutionary role.

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Socialism is healthier

In the 50 years since the Cuban Revolution in 1959, Cuba has shown what is possible when society’s priority is not profit, but the needs of the people, and when those needs are met not through the anarchy of the market, but through a democratically planned economy. Without socialist planning, Cuba’s staggering achievements in health care both domestically and internationally would have been impossible. Capitalism has failed the overwhelming mass of the people in oppressed nations, leaving millions to die every year of preventable diseases. It is now failing increasing numbers in the advanced capitalist countries as well. HANNAH CALLER reports.

In 1978, the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Alma Ata Declaration set down 38 targets for health improvement to be met by 2000. The only country to meet these targets was Cuba. Approximately 1.2 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water and 2.4 billion people lack access to sanitation services. The result? Half the hospital beds in the world are occupied by people suffering from water-borne illnesses. About 200 million people are infected with dysentery. Worldwide, diarrhoea and vomiting illnesses kill five to eight million people per year, and these are leading causes of death among children under five.

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Brigada del 50 anniversario de la Revolucion Cubana!

On 23 April, 18 Rock around the Blockade activists left London on a solidarity brigade to Cuba – ‘Brigada del 50 aniversario de la Revolucion’, organised with the Cuban Union of Young Communists (UJC). The first week was spent in Pinar del Rio, a province devastated by three hurricanes last year; the second week was in Havana. We found an island braced and ready to confront the current global crisis. Celebrating its 50th anniversary, the Cuban Revolution has realised the hopes James Connolly once held for an Irish republic, its name ‘a rallying point for the disaffected, a haven for the oppressed, a point of departure for the socialist, enthusiastic in the cause of human freedom.’

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Free the Cuban Five

On 15 June the US Supreme Court is expected to issue a decision on whether they will hear the appeal of five Cuban men imprisoned in the US since 1998 for ‘conspiracy’ to spy after a highly politicised trial in Miami. The Cuban Five, as they have become known, had infiltrated US-based terrorist groups to uncover plans and prevent terrorist attacks against Cuba, attacks which have claimed the lives of over 3,400 people since 1959. The Obama administration is attempting to influence the Court and has filed a brief urging it to deny the Five a hearing.

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Brigade reports from Cuba

‘When the history of Guantanamo is written up there will be a space left for Rock around the Blockade’, the second secretary of the UJC in Guantanamo Province told RATB brigadistas currently in Cuba on the tenth anniversary of the foundation of our campaign and our collaboration with the UJC. This is the third consecutive brigade to visit Guantanamo Province since 2000. In Caimanera they are building the disco where the sound system donated by RATB will go.

So far brigadistas have met Cubans from many sections of society. In Guantanamo City we spent time with a street committee, known as the Committee for the Defence of the Revolution (CDR), which exist in every street and rural community in Cuba. The members of the CDR told us about their work in the neighbourhood helping with social problems and the needs of the local people. They were very interested to learn about our own lives and work and had many questions concerning Britain’s occupation of Iraq, asking when we thought the troops would be withdrawn. They demonstrated a deep understanding of imperialism.

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DEFENDING SOCIALISM: Fighting prostitution in Cuba

FRFI 146 December 1998 / January 1999 

Many visitors to Cuba in recent years have been shocked to see prostitutes touting for business in the tourist areas of La Rampa, the Malecon and Old Havana. One comrade was even accosted several times by pimps in a short early morning stroll outside his hotel, his lack of Spanish being no problem: the pimp's drawing in the air of the outline of a woman was clearly understandable. 'But we thought this was eradicated with the revolution!' visitors protest. It was. Unfortunately, prostitution, along with criminal and anti-social activity, has resurfaced during the special period, linked to the rapid escalation of tourism and the free circulation of hard currency; and since the prostitutes go to the main tourist areas, visitors get a misrepresentation of the rest of Havana and of Cuba. TANIA JACKSON reports from Havana on measures being adopted to tackle the problem.

This in-your-face prostitution shocks visitors, who forget about the semi-hidden red-light districts of their home towns that make no-go-zones for local residents, or the sexually explicit photos advertising prostitution placed in phone-booths that are visible to all, including children, and so common they're now not noticed or remarked upon. But prostitution has in reality become a problem in Cuba.

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FRFI 147 February / March 1999

Reports include



This year's brigade was in Cuba at an exciting time - not only for the opportunity to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Revolution in the small rural community of Fomento, dancing to the beat of the sound system provided by Rock around the Blockade. It was also a time when Cuban communists themselves were reaffirming their commitment to the Revolution and taking measures to protect its gains against the encroachment of capitalist mechanisms. Just before the brigade arrived in Cuba, the Union of Young Communists (UJC) had held its VII Congress, analysing and discussing its role as the vanguard of Cuban youth. Alongside this, measures were being taken by the government to clamp down on crime and antisocial behaviour. The 16 brigadistas picked coffee alongside a contingent of pre-university students, visited schools, an orphanage, family doctors and a children's centre and a committee for the defence of the Revolution (CDR). We were offered constant opportunities to meet and discuss with Cubans the realities of their Revolution. We were overwhelmed by the openness, generosity and revolutionary enthusiasm that we found. As one brigadista says, we return 'rearmed' to fight the battles that confront us here in Britain, inspired by the example of Cuba's socialist state.

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Elian Gonzalez hostage of imperialism

Over recent months, the exile Cuban community in Miami plumbed new depths in its efforts to undermine the Cuban revolution with the kidnapping and systematic brainwashing of a six-year-old child.

On 25 November 1999, Elian Gonzalez was picked up at sea by the US Coastguard. His mother, stepfather and nine other Cuban would-be emigrants had drowned when their flimsy raft capsized. The little boy was handed over to distant relatives in Miami whom he had never met. With the backing of the virulently anti- communist Cuban-American National Foundation (CANF), Elian has been turned into a cause celebre for the entire exile community. When US Immigration ruled that the boy must be returned to his father in Cuba, CANF promised mass action on the streets, violence and a blockade around the house where Elian is staying to prevent his removal. This powerful lobby ensured that an elected Florida judge, with known connections to the Miami relatives, set aside the immigration service ruling. US presidential candidates from both parties have spoken out against returning Elian to Cuba and the legal procedure is being deliberately strung out.

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Rock around the Blockade: Fifth Brigade heads for Guantanamo

Rock around the Blockade is gearing up for its fifth brigade to Cuba in April. While the campaign is busy raising the final sums needed to reach our £5,000 total to buy equipment for a mobile disco in the province of Guantanamo, the brigadistas who will inaugurate the sound system within sight of the infamous US naval base in the province are preparing for two weeks soaking up the sun, sea, salsa and socialism of this revolutionary island.

The brigade breaks new ground this year, heading down south to Guantanamo City and then on to the mountains of Baracoa. While in Guantanamo, we hope to visit the Cuban military base on the border with the US-occupied bay – which serves as a poignant reminder of imperialist designs on the island.

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Cuba Leads

FRFI 154 April / May 2000

One million people have been displaced by what is called a 'natural disaster' in Mozambique. In Bangladesh in 1998 two thirds of the country was flooded. Hurricane Mitch devastated much of Honduras in the same year. Onissa in India was flooded in 1999 and then coastal Venezuela ruined. Unprecedented storms lashed France last Christmas. Mother Nature is proving very fickle indeed.

The 1990s were the warmest decade on record. 1998 was the worst year ever for storm damage. The German insurance company Munich Re says that the frequency of 'natural disasters' has tripled since the 1960s. (See David Nicholson-Lord in New Statesman, 6 March for an excellent summary of the political responses to global warming). Global warming provokes little more remark in the media than blithe comments on an early Spring or improved prospects for English vine growers. The Red Cross estimates that in 1998 'natural disasters' caused 58% of the world's refugees and that 'environmental refugees' exceeded the numbers of people displaced by wars. 32,000 people were killed by natural disasters in 1998, 60,000 in 1999.

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Elian's return: a victory for socialist Cuba

FRFI 156 August / September 2000

Elian Gonzales

The return of Elian Gonzalez to Cuba at the end of June was a victory for Cuba, in its own way as significant as the Revolution's triumph over the mercenary forces of US imperialism at the Bay of Pigs 39 years ago. The political battle carried out by the Cuban nation, led by the Communist Party, in the face of a well-funded and perniciously counter-revolutionary campaign orchestrated by Miami-based Cuban exiles has resulted in more than simply Elian's return. Before the eyes of the world, Cuban socialism confronted US imperialism – and won hands down.

In the first place, the campaign has left the Cuban people united, politicised and more combative than perhaps at any time since the 1960s. During the seven months of Elian's sequestration by his counter-revolutionary Miami relatives, demonstrations have been held almost every day in Cuba, with schoolchildren, mothers, students, workers all galvanised onto the streets of Cuba. Televised daily round-table discussions have allowed the entire population to engage in an in-depth analysis of the history of US policy and injustice towards Cuba and the gains of the Cuban Revolution and to begin to organise a real campaign against anti-Cuban US legislation. A central part of this has been the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, the insidious piece of legislation which, by guaranteeing residency to those entering the United States illegally from Cuba (and only Cuba – don't try this one if you're Haitian, Mexican, Dominican etc) – has been the siren call to unlawful and often fatal Cuban emigration. On 1 July, Cuba initiated 'the second phase of the battle against all anti-Cuban legislation', when 300,000 Cubans marched in Granma province to demand the return of the territory occupied by the US Guantanamo Naval Base. At the end of the demonstration – which was addressed, to a prolonged ovation, by the young son of Mumia Abu-Jamal who faces the death sentence in the United States – Cuban Vice President Raul Castro reiterated that the struggle would continue until there was an end to all the injustices committed against Cuba.

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Human wrongs in Geneva

FRFI 156 August / Sepember 2000

Three months after voting against Cuba at the Human Rights Commission in Geneva, Britain has been condemned by the United Nations for its own human rights record. This further exposes the Geneva Commission's condemnation of Cuba as a hypocritical and politically motivated attack on Cuban socialism, as HELEN YAFFE reports.

The Czech Republic presented the resolution to the Commission in April, against a backdrop of activity from the Miami right-wing who warned that six-year-old Elian Gonzales would suffer child abuse, torture and communist brainwashing if returned to Cuba. Despite evidence that US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright personally revised the Czech's draft resolution and that US pressure was applied to small and indebted nations, only 21 countries supported the resolution, which was passed by just three votes with 14 countries abstaining.

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Castro denounces globalisation at Millennium Summit

 FRFI 157 October / November 2000

`There is nothing in the existing economic and political order that can serve the interests of mankind,' Cuban president tells UN conference

The UN Millennium Summit was held in the United States at the beginning of September and attended by over 100 world leaders, including the president of Cuba, Fidel Castro. Amid the pious bleatings of Western leaders about the need to reduce world poverty and disease, he was the only world leader to point a finger directly at those responsible - the handful of robber baron nations that dominate the world, squeezing the lifeblood out of the oppressed nations. In contrast to the hypocritical handwringing of the imperialists in the face of the genocidal spread of AIDS through Africa - even while they back the multinationals who refuse to allow cheap drugs to be made available to those devastated countries - Cuba has offered 3,000 doctors to help combat the spread of AIDS and other diseases in Africa. Despite being limited to only five minutes in which to speak, Castro continued to show the lead Cuba offers the oppressed with a clear and concise indictment of globalisation and the destruction it brings for the majority of mankind. He also continued Cuba's campaign to expose the undemocratic nature of the United Nations as simply a mouthpiece for the rich and powerful. Below, we reproduce the text of his speech. 

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Cuba: Rock around the Blockade plans for the next year

FRFI 159 February / March 2001

Cuba has fought against imperialism and for social justice for over 40 years, despite the economic and political isolation that has been imposed on it by the US. The strength of Cuban society lies in its grassroots democracy and social welfare provision that puts people before profit. In a region of the world where millions of children sleep on the street and face daily violence, Cuba offers an alternative. No one sleeps on the streets in Cuba. Communities are strong and united. Resources, although scarce, are distributed for the benefit of everyone. Education is free and universal, as are health care and access to art and culture.

Even in Britain, where inequality is greater now than it has been for decades, Cuba is an example and an inspiration. The British media portrays Cuba as Fidel Castro's dictatorship. Most of the British left also condemns Cuba and, along with the ruling class reactionaries, they spread lies about the revolution and the benefits that it brings to the people. Most visitors to Cuba stay in tourist resorts and never come face to face with the Cuban revolution. 

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Bacardi: secret agent of US imperialism - Cuba Vive

FRFI 160 April / May 2001

Ron Bacardi: la guerra occulta by Hernando Calvo Ospina, Casa Editora Abril, Havana, 2000

Cuba Vive
Over the last two years, Rock around the Blockade has led a vibrant and successful campaign in Britain to expose the role played by Bacardi in attempting to undermine the Cuban Revolution. In September 1999, two months after launching the campaign with a demonstration that closed down Bacardi's British headquarters for the day, we attended a Eurosolidarity conference called by the British Cuba Solidarity Campaign (CSC) with the aim of spreading the campaign to other countries. Incredibly, we found ourselves facing indifference and even censorship from the CSC – until the radical Colombian journalist Hernando Calvo Ospina silenced critics with a resounding defence of the importance of targeting Bacardi. Now his new book, Ron Bacardi: la guerra occulta [Bacardi's secret war], proves the point and provides new ammunition for those serious about the defence of Cuba.

Well-structured and very informative, Ospina's book exposes completely the absolutely central role that the Bacardi company plays in organising and financing Cuban counter-revolutionaries. At the end of it, one understands that without Bacardi, there would be no Cuban-American National Foundation and none of the utterly reactionary Miami-based Cuban exile movements that have so influenced US politics over the past decades. Not only does the book expose Bacardi's pivotal role in the opposition to Cuban socialism, it also shows how the company collaborated with the CIA to support counter-revolutionaries throughout Central America. The paradox is that for decades Bacardi has wielded enormous political influence with successive occupants of the White House, yet it is not even a US-owned company!

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Human rights in Cuba

FRFI 161 June / July 2001

This year at the United Nations Human Rights Commission, it was Britain’s turn to sponsor the annual resolution condemning Cuba for its alleged human rights abuses. It was passed by the narrow majority of two, 22 to 20. This was two less than last year’s majority. BARNABY MITCHELL reports.

Behind this result lies the hand of US imperialism, determined to destroy Cuban socialism and its international example. Yet each year, it becomes more difficult for the US to muster the required majority. Last year, the Czech Republic had been only too keen to demonstrate its neo-colonial status by authoring the resolution. This time things went awry when the Czech government slipped in a phrase attacking the US blockade. Britain had to adopt a much higher profile in ensuring that things were brought back in line. Thus when Kenya pledged to vote in favour of Cuba, in stepped Clare Short’s International Development Department which dangled a $37 million offer of aid to support treatment of 1.6 million Kenyans who suffer from HIV/AIDS. The Kenyans changed their minds and abstained.

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Cubans framed in Miami show trial

FRFI 162 August / September 2001

On 8 June, a Miami jury found five Cubans guilty of charges ranging from espionage, conspiring to kill and endangering the security of the United States. The five men, Rene Gonzalez, Ramon Labanino, Fernando Gonzalez, Antonio Guerrero and Gerardo Hernandez have already spent nearly three years in jail, half of it in solitary confinement. They will be sentenced in September, almost certainly to life imprisonment.

The virulently counter-revolutionary exile community of Miami, led by the Cuban American National Foundation (CANF) and enthusiastically echoed by the US press, has summoned up the jingoism of the Cold War to denounce the men as communist spies and attempt to whip up renewed hostility to Cuba. The judicial process amounted to little more than a show trial: the trial was held in Miami, despite a motion to have it moved to an impartial venue, in keeping with the US constitution; jurors were dismissed if they did not support the aims of CANF.

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'No other nation is freer' Cuba's revolutionary struggle

FRFI 162 August / September 2001

The Cuban people are the most experienced anti-capitalist protesters on the planet. They have been locked in a life and death struggle with the forces of global capital for over 40 years. The anti-capitalist movement should look to Cuba for inspiration and for the alternative society we will need to build, as JIM CRAVEN argues.

It is one thing to tear down a corrupt system, but what is to be built in its place?
Socialism is the alternative and Cuba is showing how, even in adversity, a better, stronger, more revolutionary and democratic socialism can be built. Cuba has consistently stood by the side of those fighting oppression by the forces of global capital from Angola and South Africa to Nicaragua, Palestine and the people of Iraq. It denounces the impoverishment of the world’s people, the manoeuvres of the IMF and WTO, military aggression, the destruction of the environment and the corrupting culture of consumerism. And it has backed political support with material, technical and military aid. Most recently it has sent thousands of medical workers to help build health services in poor countries, opened new schools of medicine in Cuba to provide free training for health workers from these areas, including poor parts of the United States, and offered to provide the personnel and expertise to control the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

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Counting the cost of the illegal US blockade

FRFI 163 October / November 2001

The Cuban government recently issued a report to the United Nations on the effects of the US blockade. The issue is due to be debated again at the UN this October. Every year since 1992 the UN General Assembly has voted by a huge majority against the US blockade. Only the United States, Israel and one or two other lackeys vote in favour. The US always then vetoes the UN decision.

The blockade was imposed by the US after the declaration of the socialist nature of the Cuban revolution in April 1960 with the express aim of causing ‘hunger, desperation and the demise of the government’ in Cuba. The Cubans regard the blockade as an act of genocide under Item C of Article II of the Geneva Convention. Two years ago the Cuban government submitted a compensation claim of $121 billion to the US government for losses caused by their economic warfare against Cuba.

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Enemy values

FRFI 164 December 2001 / January 2002

When Otto Reich, a key figure in the sinister alliance between Bacardi and the Cuban American National Foundation (CANF), was nominated as the Bush Administration’s Under-Secretary of State for Hemispheric Affairs, the enemies of Cuba rejoiced, for this office handles all dealings with the island.

Last November, Reich addressed the US Chamber of Commerce, in what was essentially a plea against any US trade with Cuba, against lifting the blockade and against state credits or guarantees for exports which would ‘simply represent a transfer payment from US taxpayers to Communist Party elites in Havana’.

If, instead, would-be investors would only wait until Cuban socialism had been undermined and transformed into the ‘post-Castro’, free-market ‘democracy’ of Reich’s febrile imagination, the capitalist pickings would be rich indeed. ‘A free-market Cuba would once again be a great opportunity for business, as it once was...[representing] over $15.5bn within five years after a democratic [sic] transition.’ Reich tells us, ‘In 1958 Cuba’s exports were roughly equal to Argentina’s. And you know where Argentina is today’. Twelve months on and we do indeed know where Argentina’s economy is today – down the pan.

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Cuban socialism weathers the storm

FRFI 164 December 2001 / January 2002

In November, Cuba was lashed by Hurricane Michelle, the most powerful storm to hit the country in over 50 years. Despite winds of over 135 mph and extensive flooding, only five Cubans were killed. This compares with 12 deaths and 26 people reported missing when a much weaker Michelle crossed Central America earlier. In floods in the Philippines and Algeria in the same period, hundreds of lives were lost. JIM CRAVEN reports.

The difference was due to Cuba’s civil defence contingencies. The operation included moving over 700,000 people to safe shelters, together with animals and equipment, in just 24 hours. Electricity supplies were turned off to prevent accidents. After the storm the Cuban people mobilised to clear up and salvage anything that could be saved from the extensive damage. Reserve supplies of food and other essentials were immediately on hand to ensure no-one suffered unnecessarily.

Such a national co-ordinated effort is only possible because Cuba is a socialist country. It devotes a large proportion of its resources to the welfare of the people and it has an organisational infrastructure, which both serves the people and promotes their participation.

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Free the Miami Five!

FRFI 165 February / March 2002

The sentencing of five Cubans to life imprisonment by a Miami court on charges of espionage and conspiracy blatantly exposes the USA’s ‘war on terrorism’ as self-serving hypocrisy. All five men were involved in trying to infiltrate the viciously reactionary Miami-based Cuban exile groups responsible for acts of terrorism against Cuba over the years. The US administration has frequently acted in collusion with these groups, supporting acts of sabotage, biological warfare and assassination attempts against the Cuban people. The case has prompted massive demonstrations and shows of solidarity with the five men from within Cuba. XIOMARA PEDROSO GOMEZ, a representative of Cuba’s national student federation (FEU), which has been active in organising solidarity for the men, reports from Cuba.

Months have passed since the Cuban people began the battle for the return of Antonio Guerrero, Ramón Labañino, Fernando González, Gerardo Hernández and René González, the five Cubans imprisoned in the United States since three years ago.

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The Cubans are coming 1-18 March 2002

FRFI 165 February / March 2002

Our Cuban visitors’ whirlwind tour will include meetings in seven universities: SOAS and LSE in London, the Universities of Manchester, Central Lancashire, Wolverhampton, Sussex and the Caledonian University in Glasgow. Nancy and Kenia will also meet local residents from estate projects in Newcastle and Glasgow. They will speak to the Latin American community, Afro-Caribbean youth groups, and the Kurdish and Turkish refugee community. They will visit health centres and hospitals in inner cities, youth homelessness projects and schools. The Cubans will also visit the historical sites of Marx’s London.

The tour ends with a final all-day rally and social event. All progressive organisations are invited to attend with their stalls and contributions. Film showings, music and serious discussion will all be part of the day – a revolutionary mix of music and politics. Don’t miss out!

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Free the Miami 5 political prisoners of imperialism

FRFI 166 April / May 2002

Cooked-up charges
After their arrest in 1999, the Cubans were imprisoned for almost three years. 17 months of this was spent in solitary confinement. As time went by, new charges were cooked up. By the time of the trial, the Cubans faced charges of conspiracy, spying, conspiracy to commit murder, possession of false documents and failure to inform the US government that they were foreign agents!

The most serious charge of conspiracy to commit murder relates to an incident in 1995 when two planes flown by members of Brothers to the Rescue illegally violated Cuban airspace. Previous violations of Cuban territory by planes and boats from Florida had resulted in Cubans being attacked. After warnings were repeatedly ignored, the intruders were shot down by the Cuban airforce. Gerardo Hernandez had warned Cuba that the flights were about to take place. For that, he was charged with conspiracy to commit murder. In fact, Miami air control had already told the Cubans that the planes were on their way.

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Cuban young communists tour Britain

From 1 to 18 March, Kenia Serrano and Nancy Coro, two leading members of Cuba’s Union of Young Communists (UJC), travelled around England and Scotland on a speaking tour jointly organised by the UJC and Rock around the Blockade. It was the first time the UJC had been invited as an organisation to speak in Britain. They addressed packed meetings at community centres and universities in Liverpool, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, Manchester, Preston, Brighton, London, Leicester, Wolverhampton, Newcastle and Bath; visited a housing co-op and a women’s centre in Moss Side in Manchester, a youth and community centre in Leicester, the Sighthill estate in Glasgow where an asylum seeker was murdered last summer, the Kurdish and Turkish Halkevi centre and the Kemet Afro-Caribbean Youth Club, both in London. Alongside this, they fitted in trips to Marx’s grave in Highgate cemetery, schools, hospitals, a Sure Start project, the Houses of Parliament and museums and plenty of social events! The tour culminated in a final dayschool and rally in London on 16 March, addressed by Kenia and Nancy as well as Manuel Rubido, the First Secretary of the Cuban Embassy and members of Rock around the Blockade and the Revolutionary Communist Group. It was a magnificent end to an inspiring and informative two weeks.

It was politically significant that the tour took place in the context of a world at war, with the most powerful nation in the world, the USA, arming itself for a renewed assault on the poor of the world, with its loyal ally, the Labour government, at its side. Nothing could have made it clearer that Cuba’s enemies are the enemies of all humanity and that in making a consistent and courageous stand against imperialist terrorism and war, Cuba represents the interests of the vast majority. The defence of Cuban socialism is central to the fight against imperialism.

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40th anniversary UJC celebrates

FRFI 167 June / July 2002

‘This 40th anniversary of the UJC takes place as our people are involved in the Battle of Ideas...[which] is not just about principles, theory, knowledge, culture, arguments, replies and counter-replies, destroying lies and seeding truths – it is also about action and concrete realisations...At the vanguard of this great work are the young people, the students and our wonderful children. Because of them our optimism and confidence in the future is stronger every day.’
Fidel Castro, 4 April 2002

In April 2002, Cuba celebrated the 40th anniversary of the Union of Young Communists (UJC), the movement which organises young people in Cuba. It has been a fundamental driving force of the revolution, developing the collective and anti-imperialist consciousness of young Cubans. It was founded on 4 April 1962 by members of the Rebel Army which had defeated the US-backed dictatorship in January 1959. ‘The official birth of the UJC occurred between the Bay of Pigs invasion and the 1962 crisis which put the world on the brink of nuclear war’, President Castro recalled in his anniversary speech. ‘Our people, always heroic, didn’t vacillate, break down or give an inch in defence of their ideas and principles. During this tense and glorious stage of our history the spirited Cuban youth emerged as an organised force and bastion of our country.’

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